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- 2 cups low-salt chicken broth
- 1 cup polenta (coarse cornmeal)*
- 1/2 cup (packed) coarsely grated Comté cheese
- 2 tablespoons (1/4 stick) butter
- 3 tablespoons butter, divided
- 4 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided
- 1 1/2 pounds assorted wild mushrooms (such as oyster, crimini, and stemmed shiitake), thickly sliced
- 1/4 cup finely chopped shallots
- 2 teaspoons balsamic vinegar
- 1/4 cup low-salt chicken broth
- 1/3 cup crème fraîche or whipping cream
- 1/3 cup chopped fresh parsley, divided
- 1/3 cup (packed) coarsely grated Comté cheese
Generously butter 13x9x1- inch baking sheet. Bring milk, broth, and bay leaf to simmer in heavy medium saucepan. Remove saucepan from heat; cover and let steep 20 minutes to allow flavors to develop. Discard bay leaf. Bring liquid to boil. Gradually add polenta, whisking constantly until smooth. Reduce heat to medium-low and cook until polenta is very thick, stirring frequently, about 10 minutes. Stir in Comté cheese and butter. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Transfer polenta to prepared 13x9x1-inch baking sheet. Using wet hands, press polenta evenly over sheet to edges. Chill until firm, at least 3 hours. Cut polenta into 20 squares. DO AHEAD Can be made 1 day ahead. Cover and refrigerate.
Melt 2 tablespoons butter with 2 tablespoons oil in large deep skillet over medium-high heat. Add all mushrooms and sauté until tender and browned, stirring often, about 10 minutes. Add shallots and balsamic vinegar; sauté until tender, about 2 minutes. Season lightly to taste with salt and pepper. Cover and refrigerate.
Rewarm mushrooms in large skillet over medium-high heat until heated through. Add broth and simmer 1 minute. Stir in crème fraîche and half of parsley. Season mushroom ragout to taste with salt and pepper. Remove from heat; cover to keep warm.
Meanwhile, preheat oven to 300°F. Melt remaining 1 tablespoon butter with remaining 2 tablespoons olive oil in large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Working in batches, add polenta squares to skillet and cook until browned, about 2 1/2 minutes per side. Transfer to rimmed baking sheet and keep warm in oven while cooking remaining polenta squares.
Arrange 2 polenta squares on each plate. Top each with warm mushroom ragout; sprinkle with grated Comté cheese and remaining parsley and serve.
Wild Mushroom Ragoût on Crispy Polenta with Comte Cheese - Recipes
Unfair to have to wait for this to finish cooking and wrong for anything to taste this good! Just thinking about it this morning and picking out the photos to share made me hungry all over again. Another unfairness is that I haven't finished going through last year's Cooks' Illustrated Soups and Stews edition and now I have this year's to explore! How cruel. As you can see by the last photo, Gene proclaimed it was worth the wait.
Well, when she said, how do we show this (with food particles flying thru the air, I said well, show this as how it started, how it went, how it ended). The food, Excellent to the 3rd power. That is an economic term.
We just made this and it was wonderful. Brought some over to Grandma and Grandpa's tonight. We left out the prunes, however.
LOL! You know whats even more WRONG? Is visiting you this morning before I had breakfast! You should hear my stomach now. This stew looks fabulous!
A friend of mine just made this for me for a brithday lunch with my friends. We had it over mashed potatoes. It was EXCELLENT. Happily, she gave me what little there was left over. Lunch tomorrow!!
Bless you for posting this. The most awesome pork dish I have ever had!
Although I've made this dish numerous times, and thought I knew it by heart, I'd lost my 2009 edition of cooks illustrated and was "fuzzy" on some measurements. Thank you. Every time I make this, it's a hit. Sometimes I've had to substitute Martinellis apple juice for Brandy since some in my family don't drink anything alcoholic. Again, Thank you for sharing this recipe online.
When heated, the alcohol disappears.
Recipe Perfect Pink oyster mushroom pasta
Pink oyster mushroom pasta. Oyster mushrooms are simmered in butter and cream and tossed with pasta, parsley, and Parmesan cheese in this quick and easy weeknight dish. There are hundreds of amazing recipes you can make using our pink and pearl oyster mushrooms. The bright summery colour of the hot pinks will make We've already shared our delicious mushroom risotto recipe and there are loads of others for you to try on our recipe page.
Pink oyster mushrooms are vigorous growers, fast colonizers, and heavy yielding. The stunning appearance of these mushrooms makes them a Pink Oysters are vibrantly pink, more so when young, as they start to whiten with age. The shape of the mushroom is the typical shelf-like shape of. You can cook Pink oyster mushroom pasta using 7 ingredients and 5 steps. Here is how you cook that.
Ingredients of Pink oyster mushroom pasta
- You need Handful of oyster mushrooms.
- It’s Clove of Garlic.
- You need Knob of butter.
- It’s 1 of small onion (optional).
- Prepare 200 g of penne pasta.
- Prepare of Shaved Parmesan.
- Prepare Scoop of cottage cheese.
Recipe: spezzatino oyster mushrooms & pasta. The mushrooms will start to release their liquid. When the liquid reduces a bit, remove the top skillet. Sprinkle garlic, Italian seasoning, salt and pepper over mushrooms.
Pink oyster mushroom pasta instructions
- Put the pasta on to boil, 9 mins should do it.
- Dice up the onions and garlic and sauté in a pan until soft.
- Chop up the oysters and add them to the pan and sauté for a further 5-7 mins.
- Once cooked, drain the pasta and add to the pan.
- Add the cottage cheese, stir it about until it melts and serve with Parmesan.
Grow your own Pink Oyster Mushrooms at home with North Spore's mushroom growing kits. Cooking: Pink Oysters can easily replace button mushrooms in most recipes and pair well with many cuisines and flavors. Meaty oyster mushrooms add a savory note and heartiness to the dish while spinach keeps it fresh and colorful. Remove from the heat and stir in the remaining spinach. Pink oyster mushrooms, botanically classified as Pleurotus djamor, are named for their vibrant pink color.
BASIC FACTORS OF PRESENTATION
Good presentation of food means nothing if the food is not served at the correct temperature. To ensure the quality of hot food, it must be served on hot plates. All food should also be of the right temperature before it is placed on the plate. Hot food should be covered with warm food/plate covers to retain the temperature. It is vital that hot food is served to the customer immediately.
Cold food should be served on chilled plated. It should be thoroughly chilled before serving – either refrigerated or held on ice before plating. As with hot food, cold food too should be served immediately after plating.
The most basic factor in Food Presentation is Temperature. HOT FOOD SHOULD BE SERVED PIPING HOT AND COLD FOOD MUST BE SERVED CHILLED. Successful co ordination of temperatures required good planning and execution.
A plate of food is intended to be eaten. This means everything on the plate. When the guest begins to eat, they do not eat first the meat, then the potatoes and then the vegetables. They take bites of each. At any time, the mouth of the guest contains the flavor of every food that is on the plate. If the combined flavors of the items are not pleasing, then the meal is a failure. No matter how well each item on the plate is prepared, if the flavors are not complementary, the effect is not pleasing. It is not enough to ensure good preparation. You must also ensure a good balanced presentation of the flavors. Escoffier said that a meal is like a symphony. It should begin softly, gradually building to a grand finale. He understood that it is the melding of the flavors in the mouth, which determined the pleasure of the meal.
To place shrimp in cream sauce on the same plate as sweet and sour cabbage is to create an unpleasant taste for the guest. The acid in the cabbage will curdle the cream in the shrimp sauce as they meld in the mouth. It is this type of mis- matching that should be avoided. Both dishes may have been excellent if they had been served separately. Yet, when served together, the effect was undesirable. Balancing flavors on the plate become easier once you understand the nature of foodstuff and ingredients. To begin, remember, rich is served with lean, sweet with sour and sweet with spicy. The goal is to produce a pleasing, not overpowering, taste experience for the guest. If everything on the plate were highly seasoned or sweet would be overwhelming for the taste buds. Remember that it is flavor, which makes the food enjoyable. However, flavor is not always obvious to the eye. It is necessary to create eye appeal in presentation, which leads us to the next part of this discussion.
Although a plate of Fried fish and French fries may taste good, it has minimal eye appeal. Everything is brown in color and crisp in texture. It offers little variety or excitement for the eye. A simple addition of a portion of Cole slaw on a bright green lettuce leaf will transform the plate completely. It improves not only the flavor and the mouth feel of the dish but provides color and contrast to the eye. In presenting food, hot or cold remember that multiple colors are more eyes appealing. Yet, however, too many colors can create a gaudy and confusing effect. The colors used on the plate should be natural. Artificial and non-food colors should be avoided color. The use of fruit and vegetables with a meat dish will always improve the color, but must be appropriate. The plate should be empty when the guest finishes eating. Therefore, color on the plate should be part of what is to be eaten. A sprig of parsley might add color but is of no use if it is left behind on the plate.
Eye appeal can be gained not only through color but through the shape of the food as well. As with color, variety is the key. A plate of meat balls, new potatoes and brussel sprouts may taste good and have a pleasing color. Yet it is boring…everything is round. Replace the sprouts with green beans and the potatoes with mashed potatoes. You now have variety not only in the color but also in the shapes. The effect is pleasing to the eye. The variety in shapes is limited only by your imagination. There are a great number of different cuts of fruit and vegetable which can be produced in quantities. Use a variety of cutters: rounds, triangles, squares and half slices to improve your presentation without too much effort. Choose foods whose natural shapes complement each other.
Texture in food presentation takes two forms. One is the way food feels in the mouth: crunchy, soft, firm. The second form is the exterior appearance of the item. Does it look soft and yielding, or hard and unyielding? Is it liquid, solid, viscous, Is it dull shiny, wet or dry? Texture is all of these. As with flavor, color and shapes, variety is the key to using texture. Food presented in a group must be balances in texture. Soft, firm and crunchy textures should be judiciously mixed on the plate. A crispy fried chicken would go well with a portion of mashed potatoes. Physical textures would include: smooth, coarse and solid. Visual textures would include: pureed, speckled and patchy.
Food presentation is often referred to as garniture. This is defined as the process of garnish. In the classical French kitchen the terms garni and garniture have a long history. It was unthinkable to write a menu without the classical garniture of each particular dish. The French kitchen had many simple and elaborate garnishes which were often named after diplomats, politicians, places, regions and even events. Some of these classical garnishes are still used today in the modern kitchen. They act as a base to develop new and different presentations.
MODERN PLATE GARNISH
Today the term garnish is widely misused. A sprig of parsley, a leaf of lettuce, a slice of orange is placed on the plate next to the steak or a piece of fried chicken. This might add to the color of the plate but does little else. It is not functional and is more often than not left behind on the plate. Use imagination and thought before applying a garnish. Very often, if the plate has the proper balance of the five basic factors, no garnish is required. Where there is poor contrast, such as steak and baked potato, a simple garnish may be required for contrast. However, this should be appropriate to the food, functional and edible.
Currently, there is a shift towards smaller portion sizes with good nutritional balance. Plates should not be overcrowded. The plate is best when simple yet elegant to the eye. The plate should present a combination of foods working together. It should not be several components that happen to be on the same plate. Harmony and unity is a combination that pleases the eye. It is one in which no one particular item is overbearing. This does not mean that one item may not be dominant, but that the others present complement it. Of primary importance is that the portion size matches the plate size. It should not look crowded or sparse. Each item should logically balance with the other. It would be wrong for the vegetable portion to be larger than the meat which is the main item. The meat is the central focus of the plate and the vegetables should only complement and highlight the meat, not overshadow it. Some simple and basic guidelines are given below. These should be used together with the five basic factors already mentioned.
Properly cooked, neatly cut and appropriately molded food should not be haphazardly slapped onto a plate. Rather, you should choose and position the food carefully to achieve a plate presentation with a balanced and harmonious composition. The composition can be further enhanced by use of garnish and sauces. They will not affect the flavour of the food per se but they can make the presented food more attractive. Some garnishes like the addition of chopped nuts to a dessert or painting the plate with two sauces will add flavor and texture to the dish.
Choosing the plate: Restaurant china is available in a variety of shapes sizes and colors. It is the chef’s responsibility to choose an appropriate plate for a particular dish. Most plates are round, but oval, square and even triangular plates are now available. Plates are also available in a variety of sizes. The traditional 12” plate for a main course is no more essential and necessary. Plates are also typically concave and their depths vary. Absolutely flat plates could also be used now. The rule should be that plates must be large enough to hold the food comfortably without overcrowding. Portion size should determine the size of the plate. The plate should highlight the food and not take away from it. Highly patterned plates should be avoided. That is why most chefs prefer simple white plates. Colored plates could be used to accent food however. The obvious choice is to contrast dark plates with bright or light colored foods and light plates with dark colored foods. The shape of the plate could also contrast the food. Round shaped foods in a square/rectangular plate. The food should always be the focal point of the presentation the plate should only serve to enhance this presentation
PLATE ARRANGEMENT – SOME GUIDELINES……
- Keep food off the rim of the plate. The well of the plate is where the food should be, if the food is too much for the well of the plate, then get larger plates or reduce the amount of the food.
- Arrange the food in unity. Do not have the food spread to all parts of the plate. The focus should be on the center of the plate, not on the edges and the rim.
- Place the food in the most attractive manner. The better side of the meat on top. The bone of a chop should face away from the guest.
- Sauces can improve plate presentation. Serve the sauce around or under the food….never on the top of the main item. Be careful not to over sauce and drown the food. Serve extra sauce separately in a sauce-boat. Keep sauces light and natural…not heavy and pasty.
- Refrain from using the same pattern over and over again in the different courses.
- Garnish only when necessary. A garnish is added for balance and must be functional.
- Simplicity is the key. It is more attractive to have a simple plate presentation rather than a complex one. Elaborate designs are often confusing and time consuming. They are unpleasant to the eye if not done properly.
To conclude, presentation of food requires skill and practice. It is not just a matter of putting the food onto the plate and sending it out to the guest. The time and effort spent on preparation of the food can be spoilt by a sloppy and shoddy presentation. There is a great deal of opportunity for creativity and imagination. Experiment, develop and originate your own unique style. Use classical garnishes to good effect. Balance is the key and, if achieved, quality is the result. The meals you serve to your guests will be symphonies and will be long remembered.
CHAPTER 04: FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION
Sanitation refers to the creation and maintenance of conditions that will prevent food contamination or food borne illnesses. Contamination refers to the presence, generally unintended, of harmful organisms or substances. These contaminants can be
When consumed in sufficient quantities, food borne contaminants can cause illness or injury, long lasting disease or even death. Contamination occurs in two ways
Direct contamination is the contamination of raw food or the plant or animals from which they come. Chemical or biological contaminants such as bacteria and fungus are present in the air, soil and water. So foods can be contaminated by their exposure to the environment. Grain can get contaminated by soil fumigants in the field and seafood can be affected by ingesting toxic marine algae.
Chemical and microorganisms cannot move on their own however. They need to be transported, an event known as Cross-contamination.The major cause of cross-contamination is people. Food handlers can transfer biological, chemical or physical contaminants to the food while processing, preparing, cooking and serving the food. It is necessary therefore to view sanitation as the correction of problems caused by direct contamination and the prevention of problems caused by cross-contamination during processing and service.
Several micro organisms, primarily bacteria, cause biologically based food borne illnesses. By understanding how these organisms live and reproduce you can better understand how to protect food from them.
Bacteria which are single celled micro organisms are the leading cause of food borne illnesses. Some bacteria are beneficial such as those that aid in digesting food or decomposing garbage. Other bacteria spoil food, without rendering it unfit for human consumption. These bacteria called putrefactive are not a sanitation concern. The bacteria that are dangerous when consumed by humans are called pathogenic. These bacteria must be destroyed or controlled in a food service operation. Most bacteria reproduce by binary fission. Their genetic material is first duplicated and the nucleus then splits, each new nucleus taking some of the cellular material with it. Under favorable conditions, some bacteria can divide every 15-30 minutes. Within 12 hours, one bacterium can become a colony of 72 billion bacteria, more than enough to cause a serious illness. Some rod shaped bacteria are capable of forming spores. Spores are thick wall structures used as a protection against hostile environment. The bacteria essentially hibernate within their spores where they can survive extreme conditions that would otherwise destroy them. When conditions become favorable, the bacteria return to a viable state. This is important in food sanitation because heating or sanitizing techniques may not destroy bacterial spores.
Intoxications and infections: Depending upon the particular micro organisms, pathogenic bacteria can cause illnesses in humans in one of the three ways:
– Toxin medicated infection.
Botulism is a well known example of intoxication. Certain bacteria produce toxins, byproducts of their life processes. You cannot smell, see or taste toxins. Ingesting these toxin producing bacteria by themselves does not cause illness. But when their toxins are ingested, the toxin can poison the consumer. Proper food handling techniques are critical in preventing intoxication because even if a food is cooked to a sufficiently high temperature to kill all bacteria present, the toxins they leave behind are usually not destroyed.
The second type of bacterial illness is an infection. Salmonella is an especially well known example. An infection occurs when live pathogenic bacteria (infectants) are ingested. The bacteria then live in the consumer’s intestinal tract. It is the living bacteria, not their waste products that cause an illness. Infectants must be alive when eaten for them to do any harm. Fortunately, these bacteria can be destroyed by cooking foods to sufficiently high temperatures of 65°F (74°C) or higher. The third type of bacterial illness has characteristics of both – an intoxication and an infection, and is referred to as a toxin mediated infection. Examples are Clostridium Perfringens and E Coli. When these living organisms are ingested, they establish colonies in human or animal intestinal tracts, where they then produce toxins. These bacteria are particularly dangerous for young children, the elderly and the infirm.
PREVENTING BACTERIAL INFECTIONS AND INTOXICATIONS .
All bacteria, like other living things need certain conditions to complete their life cycles. Like humans, they need food, a comfortable temperature, moisture, the proper PH, the proper atmosphere and time. The best way to prevent bacterial intoxications and infections is to attack the factors that bacteria need to survive and multiply.
FOOD: Bacteria need food and energy for growth. The foods on which bacteria thrive are referred to as potentially hazardous foods (PHF).They are generally high in protein and include animal based products, cooked grains and some cooked vegetables. These foods and items containing these foods must be handled with great care.
TEMPERATURE: Is the most important factor in the pathogenic bacterial environment, because it is the factor most easily controlled by Food Service workers. Most micro organisms are destroyed at high temperatures. Freezing slows but does not stop growth, nor does it destroy the bacteria. Most bacteria that cause food borne illnesses multiply rapidly at temperatures between 60°F and 120°F (16°C and 49°C). Therefore, the broad range of temperatures between 40°F and 140°F (6°C and 60°C) is referred to the food danger zone. By keeping foods out of the temperature danger zone, you decrease the bacteria’s ability to thrive and reproduce. To control the growth of any bacteria that may be present, it is important to maintain the internal temperature of food at 140°F (60°C) or above OR 48°F (6°C) or below. Simply stated, keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Potentially hazardous foods should be heated or cooled rapidly so that they are within the temperature zone as briefly as possibly. This is known as the Time and Temperature Principle.
Keep hot foods hot . The high internal temperatures reached during proper cooking kill most of the bacteria that can cause food borne illnesses. When foods are reheated, the internal temperature should quickly reach or exceed 165°F (74°C) in order to kill any bacteria that may have grown during storage. Once properly heated, hot foods should be held at temperatures of 140°F (60°C) or above. Foods that are displayed or served hot must be heated rapidly when heating or reheating foods to reduce the time in the danger zone. When heating or reheating foods
– heat small quantities at a time
– heat food as close to service time as possible
– use pre heated ingredients wherever possible to prepare hot foods
– never use a steam table for heating or reheating foods
– bring reheated food to an appropriate temperature (165F or 74°C)
Keep cold foods cold : Foods that are to be displayed, stored or served cold must be cooled rapidly.
– Refrigerate semi solid foods preferably at 40°F (4°C) or below in containers that are less that 2” deep. Increased surface area decreases cooling time.
– Avoid crowding the refrigerator. Allow air to circulate around the foods.
– Vent hot foods in an ice water bath.
– Pre chill ingredients such as mayonnaise before preparing cold foods.
– Store cooked foods above raw foods to prevent cross contamination.
Keep frozen foods frozen : Freezing at 0°F (-18°C) or below essentially stops bacterial growth but will not kill the bacteria. Do not place hot foods in a regular freezer. This will not cool the food any faster and the release of heat can raise the temperature of the other foods in the refrigerator. Only a special blast freezer can be used for chilling hot items. If one is not available, cool and hot foods as mentioned earlier before freezing them. When frozen foods are thawed, bacteria that are present will begin to grow.
– Never thaw foods at room temperature.
– Thaw foods gradually under refrigeration to maintain the foods temperature at 40°F or less. Place thawing foods in a container to prevent cross-contamination, from leaking or dripping liquids.
– In an emergency, thaw foods under running water at a temperature of 70°F or 21°C or cooler.
– Thaw foods in a microwave only if the food is prepared and served immediately.
Contamination of foods by a wide variety of chemicals is a very real and serious danger. Chemical contamination is usually inadvertent and invisible, making it very difficult to detect. The only way to avoid such hazards is for everyone working in the food service operation to follow proper procedures when handling food or chemicals. Chemical contamination could be caused by
Residual chemicals such as antibiotics, fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides have brought about great progress are controlling plant animal and human disease. Thereby permitting greater crop yield and stimulating animal growth. The benefits derived from these chemicals however must be contrasted with the adverse effect on humans when they are used indiscriminately or improperly. The danger of these chemicals lies in the possible contamination of human food, which occurs when the chemical residues remain after the intended goal is achieved. Fruits and vegetables must be washed and peeled properly, lentils and dals should be washed and then soaked and this water discarded to make sure the risk of chemical contamination is reduced and if possible removed altogether to ensure chemical residues are not consumed.
Food service chemicals such as cleaners, polishes and, abrasives pesticides which contain common chemicals are found in every food service operation. Serious illness and even death can be caused if these chemicals contaminate the food. Common products like bug spray, drain cleaner and oven cleaner can pose a hazard if stored near food. Even cleaning soap used on plates and dishes can cause contamination if not properly rinsed off. To avoid such contamination, ensure that all food service cleaning material is properly labeled and stored away from any food related items or near cooking areas. Nerve reuses empty containers again for food service even if properly washed.
Toxic metals are another type of chemical contamination and occur when metals such as lead, mercury, zinc, antimony or copper are dispersed in food or water.
– Metals can accumulate in fish and shell fish living in polluted waters or also in plants grown in soil contaminated by these metals.
– Using an acidic food such as tomatoes or wine in zinc lined (galvanized) or unlined copper vessel can cause metal INS to be released in the food.
– Antimony is used in the bonding of enamelware and it can be released into food when the enamel is chipped.
– Lead enters the water from lead pipes and solder and is found in the glaze on some ceramic tiles.
Consuming any of these metals can be poisonous. Be cautious in using service ware or cookware that might be susceptible to poisoning.
Physical contamination can be caused by foreign objects finding their way into the food. These might be inadvertent and could be pieces of string or rope in a gunny bag of flour, metal shavings caused by an old can opener, pieces of glass from a broken container or even hair and dirt in some prepared food. However, physical contamination can be caused intentionally and purposely as in cases of Food Adulteration. This can be harmful and lead to serious and sometimes fatal consequences and will be dealt with in a later chapter.
Generally, microorganisms and other contaminants cannot move by themselves. Rather, they are carried to food and food contact surfaces by humans, rodents such as rats and mice or insects. This transfer is referred to as cross-contamination.
For example, one item such as your finger or the cutting board becomes contaminated and then contaminates some other food or tool such as your knife. Using a knife to cut raw chicken and then using the same cutting board or knife (without washing/disinfecting it first) to cut salad ingredients to be eaten raw will cause cross contamination to occur.
Cross-contamination can occur with bacteria or other microorganisms, chemicals, dirt and debris. Kitchen towels, dusters and other such cleaning material are a common source of cross-contamination. If a cook uses such a duster to wipe of some spill from the floor and then uses the same to wipe his hands after visiting the rest room, he has re contaminated his hands with whatever dirt or bacteria was on the floor. Cross=contamination also occurs when raw food comes into contact with cooked foods. Never store cooked food below raw /defrosting food in the refrigerator unless covered. Never use a container that had raw food to store cooked food unless properly sanitized. Cross-contamination can easily occur from smoking in the kitchen and therefore this useless activity is totally banned in all kitchens and food service operations. Personal hygiene and cleanliness, equipment and dish sanitizing and pest management can reduce cross-contamination.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is proving to be an efficient and effective system for managing and maintaining sanitary conditions in all types Food Service operations. Developed in 1971 by NASA to ensure food safety for astronauts, HACCP is a stringent and rigorous system of self inspection. It focuses on flow of food through the food service facility from the time the decision is made to put an item on the menu to ordering and receipt of ingredients from the supplier, to receiving the raw material, inspection, storage, issuing, pre preparation, cooking, portioning and presentation and finally the service. These activities that pose the maximum risk (critical points) should be closely monitored to prevent the growth of dangerous pathogenic bacteria.
Note that standards/boundaries applied in a formal HACCP system are no different from those that should be followed in any food service operation. HACCP does not impose new or different food safety standards. It is merely a system for assuring that those standards are actually followed. One way of to assure compliance is to frequently check and record the temperature of Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF) during cooking, cooling and holding. Whatever system is followed, all personnel must be constantly aware of and responsive to risks and problems associated with the safety of the food they serve.
The kitchens are filled with objects that can cut, burn, break, and crush or sprain the human body. The best way to prevent work-related injuries is proper training, good work habits and careful supervision.
Safe behavior on the job reflects pride, professionalism and consideration for fellow workers. The following should alert you to conditions and activities aimed at preventing accidents and injuries.
– Clean up spills as soon as they occur.
– Learn to operate equipment carefully and correctly.
– Wear clothes that fit properly
– Avoid jewelry that may get caught in the equipment.
– Use knives and such equipment for their intended use only.
– Keep exits, aisles and staircases free from obstruction.
– Always assume pots and pans are hot and use dry towels to handle them.
– Position handles of pots and pans away from the aisle.
– Get help when moving heavy containers. Get help if necessary.
– Be careful when lifting heavy objects. Squat and then lift, do not bend.
– Use appropriate ladder when climbing, not a chair which was intended to sit on, not stand.
– Warn people when you must walk behind them especially when carrying a hot pan.
– Use disposable gloves when handling cooked food and foods that are to be served raw. Change gloves when handling different foods.
Yet, inevitably, some accidents will occur. In an emergency, it is important to act appropriately. This could mean calling for help or to provide First Aid. Every Food Service facility must carry a complete First Aid kit which is easily accessible. All employees must be trained in basic First Aid procedures and a list of emergency telephone numbers readily available.
Abbacchio: young lamb, specialty of Corsica.
A point: cooked medium rare.
Abat(s): organ meat(s).
Abati(s): giblet(s) of poultry or game fowl.
Abondance: firm thick wheel of cow’s-milk cheese from the Savoie, a département in the Alps.
Acacia: the acacia tree, the blossoms of which are used for making fritters also honey made from the Blossom.
Acajou: cashew nut.
Achatine: land snail, or escargot, imported from China and Indonesia less prized than other varieties.
Affinage: process of aging cheese.
Affiné: aged, as with cheese.
Agneau (de lait): lamb (young, milk-fed).
Agneau chilindron: sauté of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the Basque country.
Agneau de Paulliac: breed of lamb from the southwest.
Agnelet: baby milk-fed lamb.
Agnelle: ewe lamb.
Agrume(s): citrus fruit(s).
Aïado: roast lamb shoulder stuffed with parsley, chervil, and garlic.
Aiglefin: aigrefin, églefin: small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Aïgo bouido: garlic soup, served with oil, over slices of bread a specialty of Provence.
Aïgo saou: “water-salt” in Provençal a fish soup that includes, of course, water and salt, plus a mixture
of small white fish, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil specialty of Provence.
Aigre: bitter sour.
Aigre-doux: sweet and sour.
Aigrelette, sauce: a sort of tart sauce.
Aiguillette: a long, thin slice of poultry, meat, or fish. Also, top part of beef rump.
Aile: wing of poultry or game bird.
Aile et cuisse: used to describe white breast meat (aile) and dark thigh meat (cuisse), usually of chicken.
Aillade: garlic sauce also, dishes based on garlic.
Aillé: with garlic.
Aillet: shoot of mild winter baby garlic, a specialty of the Poitou-Charentes region along the Atlantic
Aïoli, ailloli: garlic mayonnaise. Also, salt cod, hard-cooked eggs, boiled snails, and vegetables served
with garlic mayonnaise specialty of Provence.
Airelle: wild cranberry
Aisy cendré: thick disc of cow’s-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with wood ashes also
called cendre d’aisy: a specialty of Burgundy
Albuféra: béchamel sauce with sweet peppers, prepared with chicken stock instead of milk classic sauce
Algue(s): edible seaweed.
Aligot: mashed potatoes with tomme (the fresh curds used in making Cantal cheese) and garlic specialty
of the Auvergne.
Alisier, alizier: eau-de-vie with the taste of bitter almonds, made with the wild red serviceberries that
grow in the forests of Alsace.
Allumette: “match” puff pastry strips also fried matchstick potatoes.
Alose: shad, a spring river fish plentiful in the Loire and Gironde rivers.
Aloyau: loin area of beef beef sirloin, butcher’s cut that includes the rump and contre-filet.
Alsacienne, à l’: in the style of Alsace, often including sauerkraut, sausage, or foie gras.
Amande de mer: smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond flavor.
Amandine: with almonds.
Amer: bitter as in unsweetened chocolate.
Américaine, Amoricaine: sauce of white wine, Cognac, tomatoes, and butter.
Ami du Chambertin: “friend of Chambertin wine” moist and buttery short cylinder of cow’s milk cheese
with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of Gevrey-Chambertin in Burgundy. Similar to Epoisses
cheese. Amourette(s): spinal bone marrow of calf or ox.
Amuse-bouche or amusegueule: “amuse the mouth” appetizer.
Anchoïade: sauce that is a blend of olive oil, anchovies, and garlic, usually served with raw vegetables
specialty of Provence also, paste of anchovies and garlic, spread on toast.
Anchois (de Collioure): anchovy (prized salt-cured anchovy from Collioure, a port town near the Spanish
border of the Languedoc), fished in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Ancienne, à l’: in the old style.
Andouille: large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette: small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
Anise étoilé: star anise also called badiane,
Ange à cheval: “angel on horseback” grilled bacon-wrapped oyster.
Anglaise, à l’: English style, plainly cooked.
Anguille (au vert): eel (poached in herb sauce).
Anis: anise or aniseed.
Anis étoilé: star anise.
AOC: see Appellation d’origine contrôlée.
Apéritif: a before-dinner drink that stimulates the appetite, usually somewhat sweet or mildly bitter.
Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC): specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine,
or poultry–once passed down from generation to generation now recognized by law–regulating the animal
breed or variety of fruit, the zone of production, production techniques, composition of the product,
its physical characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Arachide (huile d’ pâté d’): peanut (oil butter).
Araignée de mer: spider crab.
Arbousier (miel d’): trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also called
strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like fruit dotted with tiny bumps
(honey of). Used for making liqueurs, jellies, and jams.
Arc en ciel (truite): rainbow (trout).
Ardennaise, à l’: in the style of the Ardennes, a département in northern France generally a dish with
Ardi gasna: Basque name for sheep’s-milk cheese.
Ardoise: blackboard bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a printed menu
Arête: fish bone.
Arlésienne, à l’: in the style of Arles, a town in Provence with tomatoes, onions, eggplant, potatoes,
rice, and sometimes olives.
Armagnac: brandy from the Armagnac area of Southwestern France.
Aromate: aromatic herb, vegetable, or flavoring.
Arômes à la gêne: generic name for a variety of tangy, lactic cheeses of the Lyon area that have been
steeped in gêne, or dry marc, the dried grape skins left after grapes are pressed for wine. Can be of
cow’s milk, goat’s milk, or a mixture.
Arosé(e): sprinkled, basted, moistened with liquid.
Arpajon: a town in the Ile-de-France dried bean capital of France a dish containing dried beans.
Artichaut (violet) artichoke (small purple) (camus) snub-nosed..
Artichaut à la Barigoule: in original form, artichokes cooked with mushrooms and oil also, artichoke
stuffed with ham, onion, and garlic, browned in oil with onions and bacon, then cooked in water or white
wine specialty of Provence.
Asperge (violette): asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the Côte-d’Azur).
Assaisonné: seasoned seasoned with.
Assiette anglaise: assorted cold meats, usually served as a first course.
Assiette de pêcheur: assorted fish platter.
Assoifé: parched, thirsty.
al of ail (garlic).
Aumônière: “beggar’s purse” thin crêpe, filled and tied like a bundle.
Aurore: tomato and cream sauce.
Auvergnat(e): in the style of the Auvergne often with cabbage, sausage, and bacon.
Aveline: hazelnut or filbert, better known as noisette.
Axoa: a dish of ground veal, onions, and the local fresh chiles, piment d’Espelette specialty of the
Azyme, pain: unleavened bread matzo.
Baba au rhum: sponge cake soaked in rum syrup.
Badiane: star anise.
Baeckeoffe, baekaoffa, backaofa, backenoff: “baker’s oven” stew of wine, beef, lamb, pork, potatoes,
and onions specialty of Alsace.
Bagna caudà: sauce of anchovies, olive oil, and garlic, for dipping raw vegetables specialty of Nice.
Baguette: “wand” classic long, thin loaf of bread.
Baguette au levain or à l’ancienne: sourdough baguette.
Baie rose: pink peppercorn.
Ballotine: usually poultry boned, stuffed, and rolled.
Banon: village in the Alps of Provence, source of dried chestnut leaves traditionally used to wrap goat
cheese, which was washed with eau-de-vie and aged for several months today refers to various
goat’s-milk cheese or mixed goat-and cow’s-milk cheese from the region, sometimes wrapped in fresh
green or dried brown chestnut leaves and tied with raffia.
Bar: ocean fish, known as loup on the Mediterranean coast, louvine or loubine in the southwest, and
barreau in Brittany similar to sea bass.
Barbouillade: stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew also, a combination of beans and artichokes.
Barbue: brill, a flatfish related to turbot, found in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Barder: to cover poultry or meat with strips of uncured bacon, to add moisture while cooking.
Baron: hindquarters of lamb, including both legs.
Barquette: “small boat” pastry shaped like a small boat.
Basquaise, à la: Basque style usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Bâtard, pain: “bastard bread” traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
Batavia: salad green, a broad, flat-leafed lettuce.
Bâton: small white wand of bread, smaller than a baguette.
Bâtonnet: garnish of vegetables cut into small sticks.
Baudroie: in Provence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed ocean fish also
known as lotte and gigot de met: also a specialty of Provence, a fish soup that includes potatoes, onions,
fresh mushrooms, garlic, fresh or dried orange zest, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Bavaroise: cold dessert a rich custard made with cream and gelatin.
Baveuse: “drooling” method of cooking an omelet so that it remains moist and juicy.
Béarnaise: tarragon-flavored sauce of egg yolks, butter, shallots, white wine, vinegar and herbs.
Béatille: “tidbit” dish combining various organ meats.
Bécasse: small bird, a woodcock.
Bécassine: small bird, a snipe.
Béchamel: white sauce, made with butter, flour, and milk, usually flavored with onion, bay leaf, pepper,
Beignet: fritter or doughnut.
Beignet de fleur de courgette: batter-fried zucchini blossom native to Provence and the Mediterranean,
now popular all over France.
Belle Hélène (poire): classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and topped
with hot chocolate sauce.
Bellevue, en: classic presentation of whole fish, usually in aspic on a platter.
Belon: river in Brittany identified with a prized flat-shelled (plate) oyster.
Belondines: Brittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affinées or finished off in the Belon
Berawecka, bierewecke, bireweck, birewecka: dense, moist Christmas fruit bread stuffed with dried
pears, figs, and nuts specialty of Kaysersberg, a village in Alsace.
Bercy: fish stock-based sauce thickened with flour and butter and flavored with white wine and shallots.
Bergamot (thé a la bergamote): name for both a variety of orange and of pear (earl grey tea.).
Berrichonne: garnish of bruised cabbage, glazed baby onions, chestnuts, and lean bacon named for the
old province of Berry.
demi-sel: butter (lightly salted).
blanc: classic reduced sauce of vinegar white wine, shallots, and butter
cru: raw cream butter.
des Charentes: finest French butter, from the region of PoitouCharentes along the Atlantic coast.
de Montpellier: classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
du cru: butter given the appellation d’origine contrôlée pedigree.
Echiré: brand of the finest French butter, preferred by French chefs, with an AOC pedigree, from the
region of Poitou-Charentes along the Atlantic coast.
noir: sauce of browned butter, lemon juice or vinegar, parsley, and sometimes capers traditionally
served with raie, or skate.
noisette: lightly browned butter.
vierge: whipped butter sauce with salt, pepper, and lemon juice.
Bibelskäs, bibbelskäse: fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices specialty of Alsace.
Biche: female deer.
Bien cuit(e): cooked well done.
Bière (en bouteille, à la pression): beer (bottled, on tap).
Bigarade: orange sauce.
Biggareau: red firm-fleshed variety of cherry
Bigorneau: periwinkle, tiny sea snail.
Bigoudène, à la: in the style of Bigouden, a province in Brittany (pommes) baked slices of unpeeled
potato (ragôut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Billy Bi, Billy By: cream of mussel soup, specialty of the Atlantic coast.
Biscuit à la cuillère: ladyfinger.
Bistrotier: bistro owner.
Blanc (de poireau): white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de volaille): usually breast (of chicken).
Blanc-manger: chilled pudding of almond milk with gelatin.
Blanquette: classic mild stew of poached veal, lamb, chicken, or seafood, enriched with an egg and cream
white sauce supposedly a dish for convalescents.
Blé (noir): wheat (buckwheat).
Blette, bette: Swiss chard.
Bleu: “blue” cooked rare, usually for steak. See also Truite au bleu.
Bleu d’Auvergne: a strong, firm and moist, flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made from cow’s
milk in the Auvergne, sold wrapped in foil still made on some farms.
Bleu de Bresse: a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow’s-milk cheese from the Bresse area in the Rhône-Alps
region industrially made.
Bleu de Gex: thick, savory blue-veined disc of cow’s-milk cheese from the Jura made in only a handful
of small dairies in the département of the Ain.
Bleu des Causses: a firm, pungent, flat cylinder of blue-veined cow’s-milk cheese, cured in cellars similar
to those used in making Roquefort.
Blini: small thick pancake, usually eaten with caviar.
Boeuf à la ficelle: beef tied with string and poached in broth.
Boeuf à la mode: beef marinated and braised in red wine, served with carrots, mushrooms, onions, and
Boeuf gros sel: boiled beef, served with vegetables and coarse salt.
Bohémienne, à la: gypsy style with rice, tomatoes, onions, sweet peppers, and paprika, in various
Boisson (non) comprise: drink (not) included.
Bolet: type of wild boletus mushroom. See Cèpe.
Bombe: molded, layered ice cream dessert.
Bonbon: candy or sweet.
Bon-chrétien: “good Christian” a variety of pear, also known as poire William’s.
Bondon: small cylinder of delicately flavored, mushroomy cow’s-milk cheese made in the Neufchâtel
area in Normandy.
Bonite: a tuna, or oceanic bonito.
Bonne femme (cuisine): meat garnish of bacon, potatoes, mushrooms, and onions fish garnish of shallots,
parsley, mushrooms, and potatoes or white wine sauce with shallots, mushrooms, and lemon juice
Bordelaise: Bordeaux style also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and bone marrow.
Bouchée: “tiny mouthful” may refer to a bite-size pastry or to a vol-au-vent.
Boudouses: literally, to pout tiny oysters from Brittany that refuse to grow to normal size iodine rich
Bouchoteur: mussel fisherman a dish containing mussels.
Boudin: technically a meat sausage, but generically any sausage-shaped mixture.
Boudin blanc: white sausage of veal, chicken, or pork.
Boudin noir: pork blood sausage.
Bouillabaisse: popular Mediterranean fish soup, most closely identified with Marseille, ideally prepared
with the freshest local fish, preferably rockfish. Traditionally might include dozens of different fish,
but today generally includes the specifically local rascasse (scorpion fish), Saint-Pierre (John Dory),
fiéla (conger eel), galinette (gurnard or grondin), vive (weever), and baudroie (monkfish) cooked in a
broth of water, olive oil, onions, garlic, tomatoes, parsley, and saffron. The fish is served separately
from the broth, which is poured over garlic-rubbed toast, and seasoned with rouille which is stirred
into the broth. Varied additions include boiled potatoes, orange peel, fennel, and shellfish. Expensive
shellfish are often added in restaurant versions, but this practice is considered inauthentic.
Bouilliture: eel stew with red wine and prunes specialty of the Poitou-Charentes on the Atlantic coast.
Bouillon: stock or broth.
Boulangère, à la: in the style of the “baker’s wife” meat or poultry baked or braised with onions and
Boule: “ball” a large round loaf of white bread, also known as a miche.
Boule de Picoulat: meatball from Languedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs, traditionally served
with cooked white beans.
Boulette d’Avesnes: pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective Maroilles,
formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika named for Avesnes, a village in the North.
Bouquet: large reddish shrimp. See also Crevette rose.
Bouquet garni: typically fresh whole parsley bay leaf and thyme tied together with string and tucked
into stews the package is removed prior to serving.
Bouquetière: garnished with bouquets of vegetables.
Bourdaloue: hot poached fruit, sometimes wrapped in pastry often served with vanilla custard often
Bourgeoise, à la: with carrots, onions, braised lettuce, celery and bacon.
Bourguignonne, à la: Burgundy style often with red wine, onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
Bouribot: spicy red-wine duck stew.
Bourride: a Mediterranean fish soup that generally includes a mixture of small white fish, onions,
tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil, thickened with egg yolks and aïoli (garlic mayonnaise) there are
Bourriole: rye flour pancake, both sweet and savory specialty of the Auvergne.
Boutargue, poutargue: salty paste prepared from dried mullet or tuna roe, mashed with oil specialty
Bouton de culotte: “trouser button” tiny buttons of goat cheese from the Lyon area traditionally
made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent today found in many forms, from soft and young to
hard and brittle.
Braiser: to braise to cook meat by browning in fat, then simmering in covered dish with small amount
Branche, en: refers to whole vegetables or herbs.
Brandade (de morue): a warm garlicky purée (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and sometimes
mashed potatoes specialty of Provence currently used to denote a variety of flavored mashed potato
Brassado: a doughnut that is boiled, then baked, much like a bagel specialty of Provence.
Brayaude, gigot: leg of lamb studded with garlic, cooked in white wine, and served with red beans,
braised cabbage, or chestnuts.
Brebis (fromage de): sheep (sheep’s-milk cheese).
Brési (Breuzi): smoked, salted, and dried beef from the Jura.
Bretonne, à la: in the style of Brittany a dish served with white beans or may refer to a white wine
sauce with carrots, leeks, and celery.
Bretzel: a pretzel specialty of Alsace.
Brie de Meaux: “king of cheese,” the flat wheel of cheese made only with raw cow’s milk and aged at
least four weeks from Meaux, just east of Paris brie made with pasteurized milk does not have the
right to be called brie de Meaux.
Brie de Melun: smaller than brie de Meaux, another raw-cow’s-milk cheese, aged at least one month,
with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brillat-Savarin: (1755-1826) famed gastronome, coiner of food aphorisms, and author of The Physiology
of Taste the high-fat, supple cow’s-milk cheese from Normandy is named for him.
Brioche: buttery egg-enriched yeast bread.
Brocciu: soft, young, sheep’s milk cheese from Corsica.
Broche, à la: spit-roasted.
Brochet(on): freshwater pike (small pike).
Brochette: cubes of meat or fish and vegetables on a skewer.
Brouet: old term for soup.
Brouillade: a mixture of ingredients as in a stew or soup also, scrambled eggs.
Brouillé(s): scrambled, usually eggs.
Brousse: a very fresh and unsalted (thus bland) sheep’s- or goat’s-milk cheese, not unlike Italian
ricotta specialty of Nice and Marseille.
Broutard: young goat.
Brûlé(e): “burned” usually refers to caramelization.
Brunoise: tiny diced vegetables.
Brut: very dry or sugarless, particularly in reference to Champagne.
Buccin: large sea snail or whelk, also called bulot.
Bûche de Noël: Christmas cake shaped like a log (bûche), a sponge cake often flavored with chestnuts
Buffet froid: variety of dishes served cold, sometimes from a buffet.
Bugne: deep-fried yeast-dough fritter or doughnut dusted with confectioner’s sugar popular in and
around Lyon before Easter.
Buisson: “bush” generally a dish including vegetables arranged like a bush classically a crayfish
Bulot: large sea snail or whelk, also called buccin.
Buron: traditional hut where cheese is made in the Auvergne mountains.
Cabécou(s): small, round goat’s-milk cheese from the southwest, sometimes made with a mix of goat’s
asque region, eglefin in Provence.
Cabri: young goat.
Cacahouète, cacahouette, cacachuète: prepared peanut–roasted, dry roasted, or salted. A raw peanut
Cacao: cocoa powdered cocoa.
Cachat: a very strong goat cheese generally a blend of various ends of leftover cheese, mixed with
seasonings that might include salt, pepper, brandy and garlic, and aged in a crock specialty of Provence.
Caen, à la mode de: in the style of Caen, a town in Normandy a dish cooked in Calvados and white wine
Café: coffee, as well as a type of eating place where coffee is served.
allongé: weakened espresso, often served with a small pitcher of hot water so clients may thin the
au lait or crème: espresso with warmed or steamed milk.
déca or décaféiné: decaffeinated coffee.
express: plain black espresso.
faux: decaffeinated coffee.
filtre: filtered American-style coffee (not available at all cafés).
glacé: iced coffee.
liègeois: iced coffee served with ice cream (optional) and whipped cream also coffee ice cream
noir: plain black espresso.
noisette: espresso with tiny amount of milk.
serré: extra-strong espresso, made with half the normal amount of water.
Cagouille: on the Atlantic coast, name for small petit gris land snail, or escargot.
Caillé: clotted or curdled curds of milk.
Caillette: round pork sausage including chopped spinach or Swiss chard, garlic, onions, parsley, bread,
and egg and wrapped in crépine (caul fat) served hot or cold specialty of northern Provence.
Caisse: cash register or cash desk.
Caissette: literally, “small box” bread, brioche, or chocolate shaped like a small box.
Cajasse: a sort of clafoutis from the Dordogne, made with black cherries.
Cajou: cashew nut.
Calisson d’Aix: Delicate, diamond-shaped Provençal sweet prepared with almonds, candied oranges,
melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and confiture of oranges or apricots.
Calmar: small squid, similar to encornet with interior transparent cartilage instead of a bone. Also called chipiron in the southwest.
Calvados: a département in Normandy known for the famed apple brandy.
Camembert (de Normandie): village in Normandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made of cow’s milk.
Camomille: camomile, herb tea.
Campagnard(e) (assiette): country-style, rustic (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
Campagne, à la: country-style.
Canada: cooking apple.
Canapé: originally a slice of crustless bread now also used to refer to a variety of hors d’oeuvre consisting of toasted or fried bread, spread with forcemeat, cheese, and other flavorings.
Canard à la presse: roast duck served with a sauce of juices obtained from pressing the carcass, combined with red wine and Cognac.
Canard sauvage: wild duck, usually mallard.
Cancoillotte: spreadable cheese from the Jura usually blended with milk, spices, or white wine when served.
Caneton: young male duck.
Canette: young female duck.
Cannois, à la: in the style of Cannes.
Canon: the marrow bone
Cantal: large cylindrical cheese made in the Auvergne from shredded and pressed curds of cow’s milk.
Cantalon: smaller version of Cantal.
Cantaloup: cantaloupe melon.
Capilotade: basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-reduced sauce.
Capucine: nasturtium the leaves and flowers are used in salads.
Carafe (d’eau): pitcher (of tap water). House wine is often offered in a carafe. A full carafe contains one liter a demi-carafe contains half a liter a quart contains one-fourth of a liter.
Caraïbes: Caribbean, usually denotes chocolate from the Caribbean.
Caramelisé: cooked with high heat to brown the sugar and heighten flavor.
Carbonnade: braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions specialty of the North also refers to a cut of beef.
Carde: white rib, or stalk, portion of Swiss chard.
Cardon: cardoon large celery-like vegetable in the artichoke family, popular in Lyon, Provence, and the Mediterranean area.
Cargolade: a copious mixed grill of snails, lamb, pork sausage, and sometimes blood sausage, cooked over vine clippings specialty of Catalan, an area of southern Languedoc.
Carpe à la juive: braised marinated carp in aspic.
Carré d’agneau: rack (ribs) or loin of lamb also crown roast.
Carré de port: rack (ribs) or loin of pork also crown roast.
Carré de veau: rack (ribs) or loin of veal also crown roast.
Carrelet: see Plaice.
Carte, à la: menu (dishes, which are charged for individually, selected from a restaurant’s full list of offerings).
Carte promotionelle or conseillée: a simple and inexpensive fixed-price meal.
Carvi (grain de): caraway (seed).
Casse-croûte: “break bread” slang for snack.
Cassis (crème de): black currant (black currant liqueur).
Cassolette: usually a dish presented in a small casserole.
Cassonade: soft brown sugar demerara sugar.
Cassoulet: popular southwestern casserole of white beans, including various combinations of sausages, duck, pork, lamb, mutton, and goose.
Cavaillon: a town in Provence, known for its small, flavorful orange-fleshed melons.
Caviar d’aubergine: cold seasoned eggplant puree.
Caviar du Puy: green lentils from Le Puy, in the Auvergne.
Cébette: a mild, leek-like vegetable, sliced and eaten raw, in salads native to Provence, but seen occasionally outside the region.
Cebiche: seviche generally raw fish marinated in lime juice and other seasonings.
Cédrat: a variety of Mediterranean lemon.
Céleri (en branche): celery (stalk).
Céleri-rave: celeriac, celery root.
Céleri remoulade: popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy mayonnaise.
Cendre (sous la): ash (cooked by being buried in embers) some cheeses made in wine-producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
Cèpe: large, meaty wild boletus mushroom.
Cerdon: Bubbly (pétillant) wine (red or white?) from the Bugey
Cerf: stag, or male deer.
Cerise noire: black cherry.
Cerneau: walnut meat.
Cervelas: garlicky cured pork sausage now also refers to fish and seafood sausage.
Cervelle(s): brain(s), of calf or lamb.
Cervelle de canut: a soft, fresh herbed cheese known as “silkworker’s brains” specialty of Lyon.
Céteau(x): small ocean fish, solette or baby sole, found in the gulf of Gascony and along the Atlantic coast.
Cévenole, à la: Cevennes style garnished with chestnuts or mushrooms.
Chalutier: trawler any flat fish caught with a trawl.
Champêtre: rustic describes a simple presentation of a variety of ingredients.
à la bague: parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor also called coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
de bois: wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris: most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage: wild mushroom.
Champvallon, côtelette d’agneau: traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and onions named for a village in northern Burgundy.
Chanterelle: prized pale orange wild mushroom also called girolle. Chantilly: sweetened whipped cream.
Chaource: soft and fruity cylindrical cow’s-milk cheese, with a 50 percent fat content takes its name from a village in Champagne.
Chapeau: “hat” small round loaf, topped with a little dough hat.
Chapelure: bread crumbs.
Chapon: capon, or castrated chicken.
Chapon de mer: Mediterranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
Charbon de bois, au: charcoal-grilled.
Charentais: variety of sweet cantaloupe, or melon, originally from the Charentes, on the Atlantic coast.
Charlotte: classic dessert in which a dish is lined with ladyfingers, filled with custard or other filling, and served cold in the hot version, the dish is lined with crustless white bread sautéed in butter, filled with fruit compote and baked. Also a potato variety.
Charolais: area of Burgundy light colored cattle producing high-quality beef also, firm white cylinder of cheese made with goat’s or cow’s milk, or a mixture of the two.
Chartreuse: dish of braised partridge and cabbage also herb and spiced-based liqueur made by the Chartreuse monks in the Savoie.
Chasseur: hunter also, sauce with white wine, mushrooms, shallots, tomatoes, and herbs.
Châtaigne: chestnut, smaller than marron, with multiple nut meats.
Chateaubriand: thick filet steak, traditionally served with sautéed potatoes and a sauce of white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a béarnaise sauce.
Châtelaine, à la: elaborate garnish of artichoke hearts and chestnut purée, braised lettuce, and sautéed potatoes.
Chaud(e): hot or warm.
Chaud-froid: “hot-cold” cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked sauce, then with aspic.
Chaudrée: Atlantic fish stew, often including sole, skate, small eels, potatoes, butter, white wine, and seasoning.
Chausson: a filled pastry turnover, sweet or savory.
Chemise, en: wrapped with pastry.
Cheval: horse, horse meat.
Cheveux d’ange: “angel’s hair” thin vermicelli pasta.
Chèvre (fromage de): goat (goat’s-milk cheese).
Chevreau: young goat.
Chevreuil: young roe buck or roe deer venison.
Chevrier: small, pale green, dried kidney-shaped bean, a type of flageolet.
Chichi: doughnut-like, deep-fried bread spirals sprinkled with sugar often sold from trucks at open-air markets specialty of Provence and the Mediterranean.
Chicons du Nord: Belgian endive.
Chicorée (frisée): a bitter salad green (curly endive) also chicory, a coffee substitute.Chicorée de Bruxelles: Belgian endive.
Chiffonnade: shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
Chinchard: also called saurel, scad or horse mackerel Atlantic and Mediterranean fish similar to mackerel.
Chipiron (à l’encre): southwestern name for small squid, or encornet (in its own ink).
Chipolata: small sausage.
Chips, pommes: potato chips.
amer: bittersweet chocolate, with very little sugar.
au lait: milk chocolate.
chaud: hot chocolate.
mi-amer: bittetsweet chocolate, with more sugar than chocolat amer.
noir: used interchangeably with chocolat amer.
Choix, au: a choice usually meaning one may choose from several offerings.
Chorizo: highly spiced Spanish sausage.
Choron, sauce: béarnaise sauce with tomatoes.
Chou de Bruxelles: brussels sprout.
Chou de mer: sea kale.
Chou de Milan: Savoy cabbage.
Chou frisé: kale.
Chou rouge: red cabbage.
Chou vert: curly green Savoy cabbage.
Choucas: jackdaw European blackbird, like a crow, but smaller.
Choucroute (nouvelle): sauerkraut (the season’s first batch of sauerkraut, still crunchy and slightly acidic) also main dish of sauerkraut, various sausages, bacon, and pork, served with potatoes specialty of Alsace and brasseries all over France.
Choux, pâte à: cream pastry dough.
Ciboule: spring onion, or scallion.
Cidre: bottled, mildly alcoholic cider, either apple or pear.
Cigale de mer: “sea cricket” tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
Cîteaux: creamy, ample disc of cow’s-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind made by the Cistercian monks at the Abbaye de Cîteaux in Burgundy.
Citron, orange, or pamplemousse pressé(e): lemon, orange, or grapefruit juice served with a carafe of tap water and sugar for sweetening to taste.
Citron vert: lime.
Citronnelle: lemon grass, an oriental herb also lemon balm (mèlisse).
Citrouille: pumpkin, gourd. Also called courge, potiron, potimarron.
Cive: spring onion.
Civelle: spaghetti-like baby eel, also called pibale.
Civet: stew, usually of game traditionally thickened with blood.
Civet de lièvre: jugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
Civet de tripes d’oies: a stew of goose innards, sautéed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic, then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with goose blood from Gascony.
Clafoutis: traditional custard tart, usually made with black cherries specialty of the southwest.
Claire: oyster also a designation given to certain oysters to indicate they have been put in claires, or oyster beds in salt marshes, where they are fattened up for several months before going to market.
Clamart: Paris suburb once famous for its green peas today a garnish of peas.
Clémentine: small tangerine, from Morocco or Spain.
Clouté: studded with.
Clovisse: variety of very tiny clam, generally from the Mediterranean.
Cocherelle: parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor also called champignon à la bague, coulemelle, and grisotte.
Cochon (de lait): pig (suckling).
Cochonnaille(s): pork product(s) usually an assortment of sausages and/or pâtés served as a first course.
Coco blanc (rouge): type of small white (red) shell bean, both fresh and dried, popular in Provence, where it is a traditional ingredient of the vegetable soupe au pistou also, coconut.
Coco de Paimpol: Cream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from Brittany, in season from July to November the first bean in France to receive AOC.
Cocotte: a high-sided cooking pot (casserole) with a lid a small ramekin dish for baking and serving eggs and other preparations.
Coeur de filet: thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
Coeur de palmier: delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an hors d’oeuvre.
Coffre: “chest” refers to the body of a lobster or other crustacean, or of a butchered animal.
Coiffe: traditional lacy hat sausage patty wrapped in caul fat.
Col vert: wild (“green-collared”) mallard duck.
Colbert: method of preparing fish, coating with egg and bread crumbs and then frying.
Colère, en: “anger” method of presenting fish in which the tail is inserted in the mouth, so it appears agitated.
Colin: hake, ocean fish related to cod known as merluche in the North, merluchon in Brittany, bardot or merlan along the Mediterranean.
Colombo: A mixture of spices, like a curry powder, used to season shellfish, meat or poultry. Like curry, the mix may vary, but usually contains tumeric, rice powder, coriander, pepper, cumin and fenugreek.
Colza: rape, a plant of the mustard family, colorful yellow field crop grown throughout France, usually pressed into vegetable (rapeseed) oil.
Commander avant le repas, à: a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and main courses, as they require longer cooking.
Complet: filled up, with no more room for customers.
Compote:stewed fresh or dried fruit.
Compotier: fruit bowl also stewed ftuit.
Compris: see Service (non) compris.
Comté: large wheel of cheese of cooked and pressed cow’s milk the best is made of raw milk and aged for six months, still made by independent cheesemakers in the Jura mountains.
Concassé: coarsely chopped.
Conférence: a variety of pear.
Confiserie: candy, sweet, or confection a candy shop.
Confit: a preserve, generally pieces of duck, goose, or pork cooked and preserved in their own fat also fruit or vegetables preserved in sugar alcohol, or vinegar.
Confiture de vieux garçon: varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
Congeler: to freeze.
Congre: conger eel a large ocean fish resembling a freshwater eel (anguille) often used in fish stews.
Conseillé: advised, recommended.
Consommation(s): “consumption” drinks, meals, and snacks available in a cafe or bar.
Consommé: clear soup.
Contre-filet: cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
Conversation: puff pastry tart with sugar glazing and an almond or cream filling.
Copeau(x): shaving(s), such as from chocolate, cheese, or vegetables.
Coq (au vin): mature male chicken (stewed in wine sauce).
Coq au vin jaune: chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin jaune of the region, with cream, butter and tarragon, often garnished with morels specialty of the Jura.
Coq de bruyère: wood grouse.
Coque: cockle, a tiny, mild-flavored, clam-like shellfish.
Coque, à la: served in a shell. See Oeuf à la coque.
Coquelet: young male chicken.
Coquille Saint-Jacques: sea scallop.
Corail: coral-colored egg sac, found in scallops, spiny lobster, and crayfish.
Corb: a Mediterranean bluefish.
Coriandre: coriander either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
Corne d’abondance: “horn of plenty” dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la mort.
Cornet: cornet-shaped usually refers to foods rolled conically also an ice cream cone, and a conical pastry filled with cream.
Cornichon: gherkin tiny tart cucumber pickle.
Côte d’agneau: lamb chop.
Côte de boeuf: beef blade or rib steak.
Côte de veau: veal chop.
Côtelette: thin chop or cutlet.
Cotriade: a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter, potatoes, and vinegar specialty of Brittany.
Cou d’oie (de canard) farci: neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like sausage.
Coulant: refers to runny cheese.
Coulemelle: parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor also called champignon à la bague, cocherelle, and grisotte.
Coulibiac: classic, elaborate, hot Russian pâté, usually layers of salmon, rice, hard-cooked eggs, mushrooms, and onions, wrapped in brioche.
Coulis: purée of raw or cooked vegetables or fruit.
Coulommiers: town in the Ile-de-France that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of cow’s-milk cheese, slightly larger than Camembert.
Courge (muscade): generic term for squash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
Couronne: “crown” ring or circle, usually of bread.
Court-bouillon: broth, or aromatic poaching liquid.
Couscous: granules of semolina, or hard wheat flour also refers to a hearty North African dish that includes the steamed grain, broth, vegetables, meats, hot sauce, and sometimes chickpeas and raisins.
Couteau: razor clam.
Couvert: a place setting, including dishes, silver, glassware, and linen.
Couverture: bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter used for making the shiniest chocolates.
Crambe: sea kale, or chou de mer.
Cramique: brioche with raisins or currants specialty of the North.
Crapaudine: preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
Craquelot: smoked herring.
Crécy: a dish garnished with carrots.
Crémant: sparkling wine.
aigre: sour cream.
anglaise: light egg-custard cream.
brulee: rich custard dessert with a top of caramelized sugar.
caramel: vanilla custard with caramel sauce.
catalane: creamy anise flavored custard from the southern Languedoc.
chantilly: sweetened whipped cream.
épaisse: thick cream.
fleurette: liquid heavy cream.
fouettée: whipped cream.
fraîche: thick sour heavy cream.
pâtissière: custard filling for pastries and cakes.
plombières: custard filled with fresh fruits and egg whites.
Crêpe: thin pancake.
Crêpes Suzette: hot crêpe dessert flamed with orange liqueur.
Crépine: caul fat.
Crépinette: traditionally, a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat today boned poultry wrapped in caul fat.
Cresson(ade): watercress (watercress sauce).
Crête (de coq): (cock’s) comb.
Creuse: elongated, crinkle-shelled oyster.
Crevette grise: tiny soft-fleshed shrimp that turns gray when cooked.
Crevette rose: small firm-fleshed shrimp that turns red when cooked when large, called bouquet.
Crique: potato pancake from the Auvergne.
Criste marine: edible algae.
Croque au sel, à la: served raw, with a small bowl of coarse salt for seasoning tiny purple artichokes and cherry tomatoes are served this way.
Croque-madame: open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
Croque-monsieur: toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
Croquembouche: choux pastry rounds filled with cream and coated with a sugar glaze, often served in a conical tower at special events.
Croquette: ground meat, fish, fowl, or vegetables bound with eggs or sauce, shaped into various forms, usually coated in bread crumbs, and deep fried.
Crosne: small, unusual tuber with a subtle artichoke-like flavor known as a Chinese or Japanese artichoke.
Crottin de Chavignol: small flattened ball of goat’s-milk cheese from the Loire valley.Croustade: usually small pastry-wrapped dish also regional southwestern pastry filled with prunes and/or apples.
Croûte (en): crust (in) pastry.
Croûte de sel (en): (in) a salt crust.
Croûtons: small cubes of toasted or fried bread.
Crudité: raw vegetable.
Cuillière (à la): (to be eaten with a) spoon.
Cuisse (de poulet): leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
Cuissot, cuisseau: haunch of veal, venison, or wild boar.
Cul: haunch or rear usually of red meat.
Culotte: rump, usually of beef.
Cultivateur: “truck farmer” fresh vegetable soup.
Damier: “checkerboard” arrangement of vegetables or other ingredients in alternating colors like a checkerboard also, a cake with such a pattern of light and dark pieces.
Darne: a rectangular portion of fish filet also a fish steak, usually of salmon.
Dariole: truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
Dartois: puff pastry rectangles layered with an almond cream filling as a dessert, or stuffed with meat or fish as an hors-d’oeuvre.
Datte (de mer): date (date-shaped prized wild Mediterranean mussel).
Daube: a stew, usually of beef lamb, or mutton, with red wine, onions, and/or tomatoes specialty of many regions, particularly Provençe and the Atlantic coast.
Dauphin: cow’s-milk cheese shaped like a dauphin, or dolphin from the North.
Daurade: sea bream, similar to porgy, the most prized of a group of ocean fish known as dorade.
Décaféiné or déca: decaffeinated coffee.
Décortiqué(e): shelled or peeled.
Dégustation: tasting or sampling.
Demi: half also, an 8-ounce (250 ml) glass of beer also, a half-bottle of wine.
Demi-deuil: “in half mourning” poached (usually chicken) with sliced truffles inserted under the skin also, sweetbreads with a truffled white sauce.
Demi-glace: concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consommé, or a lighter brown sauce.
Demi-sec: usually refers to goat cheese that is in the intermediate aging stage between one extreme of soft and fresh and the other extreme of hard and aged.
Demi-sel (buerre): lightly salted (butter).
Demi-tasse: small cup after-dinner coffee cup.
Demoiselle de canard: marinated raw duck tenderloin also called mignon de canard.
Demoiselles de Cherbourg: small lobsters from the town of Cherbourg in Normandy, cooked in a court-bouillon and served in cooking juices. Also, restaurant name for Breton lobsters weighing 300 to 400 grams (10 to 13 ounces).
Dentelle: “lace” a portion of meat or fish so thinly sliced as to suggest a resemblance. Also, large lace-thin sweet crêpe.
Dent, denté: one of a generic group of Mediterranean fish known as dorade, similar to porgy.
Dents-de-lion: dandelion salad green also called pissenlit.
Dés: diced pieces.
Diable: “devil” method of preparing poultry with a peppery sauce, often mustard-based. Also, a round pottery casserole.
Dieppoise: Dieppe style usually white wine, mussels, shrimp, mushrooms, and cream.
Digestif: general term for spirits served after dinner such as Armagnac, Cognac, marc, eau-de-vie.
Dijonnaise: Dijon style usually with mustard.
Dinde: turkey hen.
Dindon(neau): turkey (young turkey).
Dîner: dinner to dine.
Diot: pork sausage cooked in wine, often served with a potato gratin specialty of the Savoie.
Discrétion, à: on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed–without limit–at the customer’s discretion.
Dodine: cold stuffed boned poultry.
Dorade: generic name for group of ocean fish, the most prized of which is daurade, similar to porgy.
Doré: browned until golden.
Dos: back also the meatiest portion of fish.
Doucette: see Mâche.
Douceur: sweet or dessert.
Douillon, duillon: a whole pear wrapped and cooked in pastry specialty of Normandy.
Doux, douce: sweet.
Doyenné de Comice: a variety of pear.
Dugléré: white flour-based sauce with shallots, white wine, tomatoes, and parsley.
Dur (oeuf): hard (hard-cooked egg).
Duxelles: minced mushrooms and shallots sautéed in butter, then mixed with cream.
Eau du robinet: tap water.
Eau de source: spring water.
Eau-de-vie: literally, “water of life” brandy, usually fruit-based.
Eau gazeuse: carbonated water.
Eau minérale: mineral water.
Echalote (gris): shallot (prized purplish shallot) elongated.
Echalote banane: banana-shaped onion.
Eclade de moules: mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles specialty of the Atlantic coast.
Ecrasé: crushed with fruit, pressed to release juice.
Ecrevisse: freshwater crayfish.
Effiloché: frayed, shredded.
Eglantine: wild rose jam specialty of Alsace.
Eglefin, égrefin, aiglefin: small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Elzekaria: soup made with green beans, cabbage, and garlic specialty of the Basque region.
Embeurré de chou: buttery cooked cabbage.
Emincé: thin slice, usually of meat.
Emmental: large wheel of cooked and pressed cow’s-milk cheese, very mild in flavor, with large interior holes made in large commercial dairies in the Jura.
Emondé: skinned by blanching, such as almonds, tomatoes.
En sus: see Service en sus.
Enchaud: pork filet with garlic specialty of Dordogne.
Encornet: small illex squid, also called calmar in Basque region called chipiron.
Encre: squid ink.
Endive: Belgian endive also chicory salad green.
Entier, entière: whole, entire.
Entrecôte: beef rib steak.
Entrecôte maître d’hôtel: beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
Entrée: first course.
Epaule: shoulder (of veal, lamb, mutton, or pork).
Épeautre : poor man’s wheat from Provence spelt.
Eperlan: smelt or whitebait, usually fried, often imported but still found in the estuaries of the Loire.
Epi de maïs: ear of sweet corn.
Epigramme: classic dish of grilled breaded lamb chop and a piece of braised lamb breast shaped like a chop, breaded, and grilled crops up on modern menus as an elegant dish of breaded and fried baby lamb chops paired with lamb sweetbreads and tongue.
Epine vinette: highbush cranberry.
Epoisses: village in Burgundy that gives its name to a buttery disc of cow’s milk cheese with a strong, smooth taste and rust-colored rind.
Epoisses blanc: fresh white Epoisses cheese.
Equille: sand eel, a long silvery fish that buries itself in the sand eaten fried on the Atlantic coast.
Escabèche: a Provençal and southwestern preparation of small fish, usually sardines or rouget, in which the fish are browned in oil, then marinated in vinegar and herbs and served very cold. Also, raw fish marinated in lemon or lime juice and herbs.
Escalivada: Catalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant and onions.
Escalope: thin slice of meat or fish.
Escargot: land snail.
Escargot de Bourgogne: land snail prepared with butter garlic, and parsley.
Escargot petit-gris: small land snail.
Escarole: bitter salad green of the chicory family with thick broad-lobed leaves, found in both flat and round heads.
Espadon: swordfish found in the gulf of Gascony, Atlantic, and Mediterranean.
Espagnole, à l’: Spanish style with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and garlic.
Esqueixada: in Catalan literally means “shredded” a shredded salt cod salad.
Estival: summer, used to denote seasonality of ingredients.
Estoficado: a purée-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs also called stockfish niçoise: specialty of Nice.
Estofinado: a purée-like blend of dried codfish, potatoes, garlic, parsley, eggs, walnut oil, and milk, served with triangles of toast specialty of the Auvergne.
Estouffade à la provençale: beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange zest.
Etoile: star star-shaped.
Etouffé étuvé: literally “smothered” method of cooking very slowly in a tightly covered pan with almost no liquid.
Etrille: small swimming crab.
Express: espresso coffee.
Façon (à ma): (my) way of preparing a dish.
Fagot: “bundle” meat shaped into a small ball.
Faisandé: game that has been hung to age.
Fait: usually refers to a cheese that has been well aged and has character—runny if it’s a Camembert, hard and dry if it’s a goat cheese also means ready to eat.
Fait, pas trop: refers to a cheese that has been aged for a shorter time and is blander also for a cheese that will ripen at home.
Falette: veal breast stuffed with bacon and vegetables, browned, and poached in broth specialty of the Auvergne.
Fanes: green tops of root vegetables such as carrots, radishes, turnips.
Far: Breton sweet or savory pudding-cakes the most common, similar to clafoutis from the Dordogne, is made with prunes.
Farigoule(tte): Provençal name for wild thyme.
complète: whole wheat flour.
d’avoine: oat flour.
de blé: wheat flour white flour.
de maïs: corn flour.
de sarrasin: buckwheat flour.
de seigle: rye flour.
de son: bran flour.
Faux-filet: sirloin steak.
Favorite d’artichaut: classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a cheese sauce, and browned.
Favou(ille): in Provence, tiny male (female) crab often used in soups.
Fer à cheval: “horseshoe” a baguette that has that shape.
Féra, feret: salmon-like lake fish, found in Lac Léman, in the Morvan, in Burgundy, and in the Auvergne.
Ferme (fermier: fermière): farm (farmer) in cheese, refers to farm-made cheese, often used to mean raw-milk cheese in chickens, refers to free-range chickens.
Fernkase: young cheese shaped like a flying saucer and sprinkled with coarsely ground pepper specialty of Alsace.
Feu de bois, au: cooked over a wood fire.s
Feuille de chêne: oak-leaf lettuce.
Feuille de vigne: vine leaf.
Feuilletage (en): (in) puff pastry.
Feuilletée: puff pastry.
Féves (févettes): broad, fava, coffee, or cocoa bean (miniature beans) also, the porcelain figure baked into the 12th night cake, or, galette des rois.
Fiadone: Corsican flan made from cheese and oranges.
Ficelle (boeuf à la): “string” (beef suspended on a string and poached in broth). Also, small thin baguette. Also, a small bottle of wine, as in carafe of Beaujolais.
Ficelle picarde: thin crêpe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy cream sauce specialty of Picardy, in the North.
Financier: small rectangular almond cake.
Financière: Madiera sauce with truffle juice.
Fine de claire: elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a minimum of two months.
Fines herbes: mixture of herbs, usually chervil, parsley, chives, tarragon.
Flageolet: small white or pale green kidney-shaped dried bean.
Flamande, à la: Flemish style usually with stuffed cabbage leaves, carrots, turnips, potatoes, and bacon.
Flamber: to burn off the alcohol by igniting. Usually the brandies or other liqueurs to be flambéed are warmed first, then lit as they are poured into the dish.
Flamiche (au Maroilles): a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks, cream, and cheese specialty of Picardy, in the North (filled with cream, egg, butter, and Maroilles cheese).
Flammekueche: thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pizza, covered with cream, onions, and bacon also called tarte flambée specialty of Alsace.
Flan: sweet or savory tart. Also, a crustless custard pie.
Flanchet: flank of beef or veal, used generally in stews.
Flagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde: hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and sprinkled with sugar before serving specialty of the southwest.
Flétan: halibut, found in the English Channel and North Sea.
Fleur (de sel): flower (fine, delicate sea salt, from Brittany or the Camargue).
Fleur de courgette: zucchini blossom.
Fleuron: puff pastry crescent.
Florentine: with spinach. Also, a cookie of nougatine and candied fruit brushed with a layer of chocolate.
Flûte: “flute” usually a very thin baguette also, form of champagne glass.
Foie blond de volaille: chicken liver also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
Foie de veau: calf’s liver.
Foie gras d’oie (de canard): liver of fattened goose (duck).
Foin (dan le): (cooked in) hay.
Fond: cooking juices from meat, used to make sauces. Also, bottom.
Fond d’artichaut: heart and base of an artichoke.
Fondant: “melting” refers to cooked, worked sugar that is flavored, then used for icing cakes. Also, the bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter used for making the shiniest chocolates. Also, puréed meat, fish, or vegetables shaped in croquettes.
Fontainebleau: creamy white fresh dessert cheese from the Ile-de-France.
Forestière: garnish of wild mushrooms, bacon, and potatoes.
Fouace: a kind of brioche specialty of the Auvergne.
Foudjou: a pungent goat-cheese spread, a blend of fresh and aged grated cheese mixed with salt, pepper, brandy, and garlic and cured in a crock specialty of northern Provence.
Fougasse: a crusty lattice-like bread made of baguette dough or puff pastry often flavored with anchovies, black olives, herbs, spices, or onions specialty of Provence and the Mediterranean. Also, a sweet bread of Provence flavored with orange-flower water, oil, and sometimes almonds.
Fouchtrou: Cow’s milk cheese from the Auvergne, made when there is not enough milk to make an entire wheel of Cantal.
Four (au): (baked in an) oven.
Fourme d’Ambert: cylindrical blue-veined cow’s-milk cheese, made in dairies around the town of Ambert in the Auvergne.
Fourré: stuffed or filled.
Foyot: classic sauce made of béarnaise with meat glaze.
Frais, fraîche: fresh or chilled.
Fraise des bois: wild strawberry.
Française, à la: classic garnish of peas with lettuce, small white onions, and parsley.
Frangipane: almond custard filling.
Frappé: usually refers to a drink served very cold or with ice, often shaken.
Frémi: “quivering” often refers to barely cooked oysters.
Friandise: sweetmeat, petit four.
Fricadelle: fried minced meat patty.
Fricandeau: thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
Fricassée: classically, ingredients braised in wine sauce or butter with cream added currently denotes any mixture of ingredients–fish or meat–stewed ot sautéed.
Fricot (de veau): veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
Frisé(e): “curly” usually curly endive, the bitter salad green of the chicory family sold in enormous round heads.
Frite: French fry.
Fritons: coarse pork rillettes or a minced spread which includes organ meats.
Fritot: small organ meat fritter, where meat is partially cooked, then marinated in oil, lemon juice, and herbs, dipped in batter and fried just before serving also can refer to any small fried piece of meat or fish.
Friture: fried food also a preparation of small fried fish, usually white-bait or smelt.
blanc: a smooth low-fat cheese similar to cottage cheese.
d’alpage: cheese made in mountain pastures during the prime summer milking period.
Echourgnac: delicately flavored, ochre-skinned cheese made of cow’s milk by the monks at the Echourgnac monastery in the Dordogne.
fort: pungent cheese.
frais: smooth, runny fresh cheese, like cottage cheese.
Frais, bien égoutée: well-drained fresh cheese.
maigre: low-fat cheese.
Fromage de tête: headcheese, usually pork.
Fruit confit: whole fruit preserved in sugar.
Fruits de mer: seafood.
Fumet: fish stock.
Galantine: classical preparation of boned meat or whole poultry that is stuffed or rolled, cooked, then glazed with gelatin and served cold.
Galette: round flat pastry, pancake, or cake can also refer to pancake-like savory preparations in Brittany usually a savory buckwheat crêpe, known as blé noir.
Galette bressane, galette de Pérouges: cream and sugar tart from the Bresse area of the Rhône-Alpes.
Galette des rois: puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional Twelfth Night celebration cake.
Galinette: tub gurnard, Mediterranean fish of the mullet family.
Gamba: large prawn.
Ganache: classically a rich mixture of chocolate and crème fraïche used as a filling for cakes and chocolate truffles currently may also include such flavorings as wild strawberries and cinnamon.
Garbure: a hearty stew that includes cabbage, beans, and salted or preserved duck, goose, turkey or pork specialty of the southwest.
Gardiane: stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black olives served with rice specialty of the Camargue, in Provence.
Gargouillau: pear cake or tart specialty of northem Auvergne.
Gasconnade: roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies specialty of the southwest.
Gaspacho: a cold soup, usually containing tomatoes, cucumber, onions, and sweet peppers originally of Spanish origin.
basque: a chewy sweet cake filled with pastry cream or, historically, with black cherry jam also called pastiza specialty of the Basque region.
breton: a rich round pound cake specialty of Brittany.
opéra: classic almond sponge cake layered with coffee and chocolate butter cream and covered with a sheet of chocolate seen in every pastry shop window.
Saint-Honoré: classic cake of choux puffs dipped in caramel and set atop a cream-filled choux crown on a pastry base.
Gaude: thick corn-flour porridge served hot, or cold and sliced, with cream.
Gave: southwestern term for mountain stream indicates fish from the streams of the area.
Gayette: small sausage patty made with pork liver and bacon, wrapped in caul fat and bacon.
Gendarme: salted and smoked herring.
Genièvere: juniper berry.
Génoise: sponge cake.
Gentiane: gentian a liqueur made from this mountain flower.
Germiny: garnish of sorrel. Also, sorrel and cream soup.
Germon: albacore or long-fin tuna.
Gibassier: round sweet bread from Provence, often flavored with lemon or orange zest, orange-flower water, and/or almonds. Also sometimes called fougasse or pompe à l’huile.
Gibelotte: fricassee of rabbit in red or white wine.
Gibier: game, sometimes designated as gibier à plume (feathered) or gibier à poil (furry).
Gigot (de pré salé): usually a leg of lamb (lamb grazed on the salt meadows along the Atlantic and Normandy coasts).
Gigot de mer: a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like a leg of lamb.
Gigue (de): haunch (of) certain game meats.
Gillardeau: prized oyster raised in Normandy and finished in claires, or fattening beds on the Atlantic coast.
Girolle: prized pale orange wild mushroom also called chanterelle.
Givré orange givré: frosted orange sherbet served in its skin.
Glace: ice cream.
Glacé: iced, crystallized, or glazed.
Gnocchi: dumplings made of choux paste, potatoes, or semolina.
Goret: young pig.
Gougère: cheese-flavored choux pastry.
Goujon: small catfish generic name for a number of small fish. Also, preparation in which the central part of a larger fish is coated with bread crumbs, then deep fried.
Goujonnette: generally used to describe a small piece of fish, such as sole, usually fried.
Gourmandise(s): weakness for sweet things (sweetmeats or candies).
Gousse d’ail: clove of garlic.
Gousse de vanille: vanilla bean.
Goûter (le): to taste, to try (children’s afternoon snack).
Graine de moutarde: mustard seed.
Graisserons: crisply fried pieces of duck or goose skin cracklings.
Grand crème: large or double espresso with milk.
Grand cru: top-ranking wine.
Grand veneur: “chief huntsman” usually a brown sauce for game, with red currant jelly.
Granité: a type of sherbet a sweetened, flavored ice.
Grappe (de raisins): cluster bunch (of grapes).
Gras (marché au): fatty (market of fattened poultry and their livers).
Gras-double: tripe baked with onions and white wine.
Gratin: crust formed on top of a dish when browned in broiler or oven also the dish in which such food is cooked.
Gratin dauphinoise: baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and sometimes cheese and/or eggs.
Gratin savoyarde: baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and butter.
Gratiné(e): having a crusty, browned top.
Gratinée lyonnaise: bouillon flavored with port, garnished with beaten egg, topped with cheese, and browned under a broiler.
Grattons, grattelons: crisply fried pieces of pork, goose, or duck skin cracklings.
Grecque, à la: cooked in seasoned mixture of oil, lemon juice, and water refers to cold vegetables, usually mushrooms.
Grelette, sauce: cold sauce with a base of whipped cream.
Grelot: small white bulb onion.
Grenaille: Refers to small, bite-size new potato of any variety.
Grenadin: small veal scallop.
Grenouille (cuisse de): frog (leg).
Gressini: breadsticks, seen along the Côte-d’Azur.
Gribiche, sauce: mayonnaise with capers, cornichons, hard-cooked eggs, and herbs.
Grillade: grilled meat.
Griotte: shiny slightly acidic, reddish black cherry.
Grisotte: parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor also called champignon à la bague. cocherelle. and coulemelle.
Grondin: red gurnard, a bony ocean fish, a member of the mullet family, used in fish stews such as bouillabaisse.
Groin d’ane: “donkey’s snout” Lyonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to dandelion greens.
Gros sel: coarse salt.
Groseille: red currant.
Gruyère: strictly speaking, cheese from the Gruyere area of Switzerland in France, generic name for a number of hard, mild, cooked cheeses from the Jura, including Comté, Beaufort, and Emmental.
Gyromite: group of wild mushrooms, or gyromitra, known as false morels.
Hachis: minced or chopped meat or fish preparation.
Haddock: small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
Hareng: herring, found in the Atlantic, the English Channel (the best between Dunkerque and Fécamp), and the mouth of the Gironde river.
Hareng à l’huile: herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
Hareng baltique, bismark: marinated herring.
Hareng bouffi: herring that is salted, then smoked.
Hareng pec: freshly salted young herring.
Hareng roll-mop: marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
Hareng saur: smoked herring.
beurre: yellow bean.
blancs (à la Bretonne): white beans, usually dried (white beans in a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs).
de mouton: stew of mutton and white beans (also called halicots).
gris: green string bean mottled with purplish black also called pélandron: a specialty of the Côte-d’Azur.
rouge: red kidney bean also, preparation of red beans in red wine.
sec: dried bean.
vert: green bean, usually fresh.
Hâtelet, attelet: decorative skewer currently used to mean meat or fish cooked on a skewer.
Herbes de Provence: mixture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and blended.
Hochepot: a thick stew, usually of oxtail specialty of Flanders, in the north.
Hollandaise: sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon juice.
Homard (à l’Amoricaine, à l’Américaine): lobster (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions, tomatoes, Cognac, and white wine served with a sauce of the reduced cooking liquid, enriched with butter).
Hongroise, à la: Hungarian style usually with paprika and cream.
Hors-d’oeuvre: appetizer can also refer to a first course.
Hortillon: picturesque market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the outskirts of Amiens, a city in the north.
d’arachide: peanut oil.
de colza: rapeseed oil.
de maïs: corn oil.
de noisette: hazlenut oil.
de noix: walnut oil.
de pépins de raisins: grapeseed oil.
de sésame: sesame oil.
de tournesol: sunflower oil.
d’olive (extra vierge): olive oil (extra virgin, or the first cold pressing).
Hure de porc or de marcassin: head of pig or boar: usually refers to headcheese preparation.
Hure de saumon: a salmon “headcheese,” or pâté, prepared with salmon meat, not actually the head.
Hysope: hyssop fragrant, mint-like thistle found in Provence, used in salads and in cooking.
Ile flottante: “floating island” most commonly used interchangeably with oeufs à la neige, poached meringue floating in crème anglaise classically, a layered cake covered with whipped cream and served with custard sauce.
Impératrice, à l’: usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
Imperiale: variety of plum. Also, a large bottle for wine, holding about 4 quarts (4 liters),
Impériale, à l’: classic haute cuisine garnish of mussels, cockscombs, crayfish, and other extravagant ingredients.
Indienne, à l’: East Indian style, usually with curry powder.
Infusion: herb tea.
Isman bayaldi, imam bayaldi: “the priest fainted” in Turkish a dish of eggplant stuffed with sautéed onions, tomatoes, and spices served cold.
Jalousie: “venetian blind” classic small, latticed, flaky pastry filled with almond paste and spread with jam.
Jambon: ham also refers to the leg, usually of pork, but also of poultry.
à l’os: ham with the bone in.
blanc: lightly salted, un-smoked or very lightly smoked ham, served cooked sold, cold, in charcuteries as jambon de Paris, glacé, or demi-sel.
cru: salted or smoked ham that has been cured but not cooked.
cuit: cooked ham.
d’Auvergne: raw, dry, salt-cured smoked ham.
de Bayonne: raw, dry salt-cured ham, very pale in color.
de Bourgogne: See jambon persillé.
de montagne: any mountain ham, cured according to local custom.
de Paris: pale, lightly salted, cooked ham.
de Parme: Italian prosciutto from Parma, air-dried and salt-cured ham, sliced thin and served raw.
de pays: any country ham, cured according to local custom.
de poulet: boned stuffed chicken leg.
de Westphalie: German Westphalian ham, raw, cured, and smoked.
de York: smoked English-style ham, usually poached.
d’oie (or de canard): breast of fattened goose (or duck), smoked, salted, or sugar cured, somewhat resembling ham in flavor.
fumé: smoked ham.
persillé: cold cooked ham, cubed and preserved in parsleyed gelatin, usually sliced from a terrine a specialty of Burgundy.
salé: salt-cured ham.
sec: dried ham.
Jambonneau: cured ham shank or pork knuckle.
Jambonnette: boned and stuffed knuckle of ham or poultry.
Jardinière: refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
Jarret (de veau, de porc, de boeuf): knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
Jerez: refers to sherry
Jésus de Morteau: plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of Morteau in the Jura distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage casing on one end traditionally, the sausage eaten at Christmas, hence its name also called saucisson de Morteau.
Jonchée: rush basket in which certain fresh sheep’s- or goat’s-milk cheeses of Poitou (along the Atlantic coast) are contained thus, by extension, the cheese itself.
Julienne: cut into slivers, usually vegetables or meat.
Jurançon: district in the Béarn, the area around Pau in southwestern France, known for its sweet and spicy white wine.
Kataifi (also kataif), thin strands of vermicelli-like dough, used in Green and Middle Eastern pastries and in some modern French preparations
Kari: variant spelling of cary.
Kiev: deep-fried breast of chicken stuffed with herb and garlic butter.
Kir: an aperitif made with crème de cassis (black currant liqueur) and most commonly dry white wine, but sometimes red wine.
Kir royal: a Kir made with Champagne.
Kirsch: eau-de-vie of wild black cherries.
Knepfla: Alsatian dumpling, sometimes fried.
Kougelhoph, hougelhof, kouglof, kugelhoph: sweet crown-shaped yeast cake, with almonds and raisins specialty of Alsace.
Kouigh-amann: sweet, buttery pastry from Brittany.
Kummel: caraway seed liqueur.
Lactaire: the edible lactaire pallidus mushroom, also called sanguine. Apricot-colored, with red, blood colored juices when raw.
Laguiole: Cantal cheese from the area around the village of Laguiole, in southern Auvergne, still made in rustic huts.
demi-écremé: semi-skimmed milk.
écremé: skimmed milk.
entier: whole milk.
ribot: from Brittany, buttermilk, served with crêpes.
stérilizé: milk heated to a higher temperature than pasteurized milk, so that it stays fresh for several weeks.
Laitance: soft roe (often of herring), or eggs.
Laitier: made of or with milk also denotes a commercially made product as opposed to fermier, meaning farm made.
Lamelle: very thin strip.
Lamproie (à la bordelaise): lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the Atlantic in springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
Lançon: tiny fish, served fried.
Landaise, à la: from the Landes in southwestern France classically a garnish of garlic, pine nuts, and goose fat.
Langouste: clawless spiny lobster or rock lobster sometimes called crawfish, and mistakenly crayfish.
Langoustine: clawed crustacean, smaller than either homard or langouste, with very delicate meat. Known in British waters as Dublin Bay prawn.
Langres: supple, tangy cylindrical cow’s-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind named for village in Champagne.
Langue (de chat): tongue (“cat’s tongue” thin, narrow, delicate cookie often served with sherbet or ice).
Languedocienne: garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild cèpe mushrooms.
Lapereau: young rabhit.
Lapin de garenne: wild rabbit.
Larder: to thread meat, fish, or liver with strips of fat for added moisture.
Lardon: cube of bacon.
Larme: “teardrop” a very small portion of liquid.
Laurier: bay laurel or bay leaf.
Lavaret: lake fish of the Savoie, similar to salmon.
Léger (légère): light.
Lentilles (de Puy): lentils (prized green lentils from the village of Puy in the Auvergne).
Lieu jaune: green pollack, in the cod family a pleasant, inexpensive small yellow fish often sold under name colin found in the Atlantic.
Lieu noir: pollack, also called black cod in the cod family a pleasant, inexpensive fish found in the English Channel and the Atlantic.
Lièvre (à la royale): hare (cooked with red wine, shallots, onions, and cinnamon, then rolled and stuffed with foie gras and truffles).
Limaces à la suçarelle: snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage specialty of Provence.
Limaçon: land snail.
Limande: lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or prized as sole, found in the English Channel, the Atlantic, and, rarely, in the Mediterranean.
Lingot: type of kidney-shaped dry white bean.
Lisette: small maquereau, or mackerel.
Livarot: village in Normandy that gives its name to an elastic and pungent thick disc of cow’s-milk cheese with reddish golden stripes around the edge.
Lotte: monkfish or angler fish, a large firm-fleshed ocean fish.
Lotte de rivière (or de lac): fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, prized for its large and flavorful liver. Not related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
Lou magret: breast of fattened duck.
Loup de mer: wolf fish or ocean catfish name for sea bass in the Mediterranean.
Louvine: Basque name for striped bass, fished in the Bay of Gascony.
Lucullus: a classic, elaborate garnish of truffles cooked in Madeira and stuffed with chicken forcemeat.
Lumas: name for land snail in the Poitou-Charentes region along the Atlantic coast.
Luzienne, à la: prepared in the manner popular in Saint-Jean-de-Luz, a Basque fishing port.
Lyonnaise, à la: in the style of Lyon often garnished with onions.
Macaron: macaroon, small cookie of almonds, egg whites, and sugar.
Macaronade: a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras, smothered in fresh pasta specialty of the southwest. Also, macaroni with mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and Parmesan cheese an accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube specialty of Provence.
Macédoine: diced mixed fruit or vegetables.
Mâche: dark small-leafed salad green known as lamb’s lettuce or corn salad. Also called doucette.
Mâchon: early morning snack of sausage, wine, cheese, and bread also, the café that offers the snack particular to Lyon.
Macis: mace, the spice.
Madeleine (de Commercy): small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by Marcel Proust (the town in the Lorraine where the tea cakes are commercialized).
Madrilène, à la: in the style of Madrid with tomatoes. Classically a garnish of peeled chopped tomatoes for consommé.
Magret de canard (or d’oie): breast of fattened duck (or goose).
Maigre: thin, non-fatty
Maison, de la: of the house, or restaurant.
Maître d’hôtel: headwaiter. Also, sauce of butter, parsley and lemon.
Maltaise: orange-flavored hollandaise sauce.
Malvoisie, vinaigre de: vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy Malmsey wine.
Mange-tout: “eat it all” a podless green runner bean a sweet pea a snow pea. Also, a variety of apple.
Manière, de: in the style of.
Maquereau: mackerel lisette is a small mackerel.
Mara de Bois: small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild strawberry.
Maraîchèr(e) (à la): market gardener or truck farmer (market-garden style usually refers to a dish or salad that includes various greens).
Marbré: striped sea bream, Mediterranean fish that is excellent grilled.
Marc: eau-de-vie distilled from pressed grape skins and seeds or other fruits.
Marcassin: young boar. At one year, a wild boar will weight 40 kg, a domesticated boar 120 kg.
Marchand de vin: wine merchant. Also, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped shallots.
Marée la: literally “the tide” usually used to indicate seafood that is fresh.
Marennes: flat-shelled green-tinged plate oyster. Also the French coastal village where flat-shelled oysters are raised.
Marinade: seasoned liquid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours. The liquid seasons and tenderizes at the same time.
Marjolaine: marjoram. Also, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
Marmelade: traditionally a thick purée of fruit, or sweet stewed fruit today purée of vegetable, or stewed vegetables.
Marmite: small covered pot also a dish cooked in a small casserole.
Maroilles: village in the north that gives its name to a strong-tasting, thick, square cow’s-milk cheese with a pale brick-red rind.
Marquise (au chocolat): mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
Marion (glacé): large (candied) chestnut.
Matelote (d’anguilles): freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
Matignon: a garnish of mixed stewed vegetables.
Mauviette: wild meadow lark or skylark.
Médaillon: round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
Mélange: mixture or blend.
Méli-mélo: an assortment of fish and/or seafood.
Melon de Cavaillon: small canteloupe-like melon from Cavaillon, a town in Provence known for its wholesale produce market.
Ménagère, à la: “in the style of the housewife” usually a simple preparation including onions, potatoes, and carrots.
Mendiant, fruits du: traditional mixture of figs, almonds, hazelnuts, and raisins, whose colors suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
Merguez: small spicy sausage.
Merlu: hake, a member of the codfish family often sold improperly in Paris markets as colin found in the English Channel, Atlantic, and Mediterranean.
Mérou: a large grouper, an excellent tropical or near-tropical fish, generally imported from North Africa but sometimes found in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.
Merveille: hot sugared doughnut.
Mesclum, mesclun: a mixture of at least seven multi-shaded salad greens from Provence.
Mets: dish or preparation.
Mets selon la saison: seasonal preparation according to the season.
Méture: corn bread from the Basque region.
Meule: “millstone” name for wheel of cheese in the Jura.
Meunière, à la: “in the style of the miller’s wife” refers to a fish that is seasoned, rolled in flour, fried in butter and served with lemon, parsley and hot melted butter.
Meurette: in, or with, a red wine sauce. Also, a Burgundian fish stew.
Mi-cru: half raw.
Mi-cuit: half cooked.
Miche: a large round country-style loaf of bread. Also, Basque name for aniseed cake-like bread.
Mie: interior or crumb of the bread (see Pain de mie).
Mignardise: see Petit-four.
Mignon de canard: see Dcmsiselle de canard.
Mignonette: small cubes, usually of beef. Also refers to coarsely ground black ot white pepper.
Mijoté(e) (plat): simmered (dish or preparation).
Mille-feuille: refers to puff pastry with many thin layers usually a cream-filled rectangle of puff pastry, or a Napoleon.
Mimosa: garnish of chopped hard-cooked egg yolks.
Minute (à la): “minute” something quickly grilled or fried in butter with lemon juice and parsley (prepared at the last minute).
Mique: generally a large breaded dumpling, poached and served with stews and meats specialty of the Southwest.
Mirabeau: garnish of anchovies, pitted olives, tarragon, and anchovy butter.
Mirabelle: small sweet yellow plum. Also, colorless fruit brandy or eau-de-vie, made from yellow plums.
Mirepoix: cubes of carrots and onions or mixed vegetables, usually used in braising to boost the flavor of a meat dish.
Miroir: “mirror” a dish that has a smooth glaze currently a fruit mousse cake with a layer of fruit glaze on top.
Miroton (de): slice (of). Also, stew of meats flavored with onions.
Mitonnée: a simmered, soup-like dish.
Mode de, à la: in the style of.
Moëlle: beef bone marrow.
Mogette, mojette mougette: a kind of dried white bean from the Atlantic coast.
Moka: refers to Coffee coffee-flavored dish.
Mont blanc: rich classic pastry of baked meringue, chestnut purée, and whipped cream.
Montagne, de la: from the mountains.
Montmorency: garnished with cherries historically a village known for its cherries, now a suburb of Paris.
Morbier: supple cow’s-milk cheese from the Jura a thin sprinkling of ashes in the center gives it its distinctive black stripe and light smoky flavor.
Morceau: piece or small portion.
Morille: wild morel mushroom, dark brown and conical.
Mornay: classic cream sauce enriched with egg yolks and cheese.
Morue: salt cod also currently used to mean fresh cod, which is cabillaud.
Morvandelle, jambon à la: in the style of the Morvan (ham in a piquant creamy sauce made with white wine, vinegar, juniper berries, shallots, and cream).
Morvandelle, râpée: grated potato mixed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
Mosaïque: “mosaic” a presentation of mixed ingredients.
Mostèle: forkbeard mostelle small Mediterranean fish of the cod family.
Mouclade: creamy mussel stew from the Poitou-Charentes on the Atlantic Coast, generally flavored with curry or saffron.
Moufflon: wild sheep.
Moule: mussel. Also a mold.
Moule de bouchot: small, highly prized cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the sediment of shallow coastal beds.
Moule de Bouzigues: iodine-strong mussel from the village of Bouzigues, on the Mediterranean coast.
Moule d’Espagne: large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
Moule de parques: Dutch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted ponds.
Moules marinière: mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
Moulin (à poivre): mill (peppermill) also used for oil and flour mills.
Mourone: Basque name for red bell pepper.
Mourtayrol, mourtaïrol: a pot-au-feu of boiled beef, chicken, ham, and vegetables, flavored with saffron and served over slices of bread specialty of the Auvergne.
Mousse: light, airy mixture usually containing eggs and cream, either sweet or savory.
Mousseline: refers to ingredients that are usually lightened with whipped cream or egg whites, as in sauces, or with butter, as in brioche mousseline.
Mousseron: tiny, delicate, wild mushroom.
Moutarde (à l’ancienne, en graines): mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
Muge: grey mullet.
Mulard: breed of duck common to the southwest, fattened for its delicate liver, for foie gras.
Mulet: the generic group of mullet, found in the English Channel, Atlantic, and Mediterranean.
Munster: village in Alsace that gives its name to a disc of soft, tangy cow’s-milk cheese with a brick red rind and a penetrating aroma the cheese is also sometimes cured with cumin seeds.
Mûre (de ronces): blackberry (bush).
Muscat de Hamb0ourg: variety of popular purple table grape, grown in Provence.
Museau de porc (or de boeuf): vinegared pork (or beef) muzzle.
Myrtille: bilberry (bluish black European blueberry).
Mystère: truncated cone-shaped ice cream dessert. Also, dessert of cooked meringue with ice cream and chocolate cake.
Nage (à la): “swimming” aromatic poaching liquid (served in).
Nantua: sauce of crayfish, butter, cream, and, traditionally truffles also garnish of crayfish.
Nappé: covered, as with a sauce.
Natte: woven loaf of bread.
Nature: refers to simple, unadorned preparations.
Navarin: lamb or mutton stew.
Navarraise, à la: Navarre-style, with sweet peppers, onions, and garlic.
Navette: “little boat” small pastry boats.
Nèfle: medlar also called Japanese loquat tart fruit that resembles an apricot and taste like a mango.
Neufchâtel: white, creamy, delicate (and often heart-shaped) cow’s-milk cheese, named for village in Normandy where it is made.
Newburg: lobster preparation with Madeira, egg yolks, and cream.
Nivernaise, à la: in the style of Nevers with carrots and onions.
Noilly: a vermouth-based sauce.
Noisette: hazelnut also refers to small round piece (such as from a potato), generally the size of a hazelnut, lightly browned in butter. Also, center cut of lamb chop. Also, dessert flavored with hazelnuts.
Noix: general term for nut also, walnut. Also, nut-size, typically une noix de beurre, or lump of butter.
Non compris: see Service (non) compris.
Nonat: small river fish in Provence, usually fried. Also known as poutine.
Normande: in the style of Normandy sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. Also refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or Calvados or dessert with apples, usually served with cream.
Note: another word for addition, bill or tab.
Nougat: candy of roasted almonds, egg whites, and honey specialty of Montélimar.
Nougat glacé: frozen dessert of whipped cream and candied fruit.
Nouveau, nouvelle: new or young.
Nouveauté: a new offering.
à la coque: soft-cooked egg.
brouillé: scrambled egg.
dur: hard-cooked egg.
en meurette: poached egg in red wine sauce.
mollet: egg simmered in water for 6 minutes.
poché: poached egg.
sauté à la poêle or oeuf sur le plat: fried egg.
Oeufs à la neige: “eggs in the snow” sweetened whipped egg whites poached in milk and served with vanilla custard sauce.
Offert: offered free or given.
Olive noire (verte): black olive (green olive).
Olives cassées: fresh green olives cured in a rich fennel-infused brine specialty of Provence.
Olive de Nyons: wrinkled black olive, first olive in France to receive AOC. Also used for oil.
Omble (ombre) chevalier: lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to deep red. Found in lakes in the Savoie.
Omelette norvegienne: French version of Baked Alaska a concoction of sponge cake covered with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then browned quickly in the oven.
Onglet: cut similar to beef flank steak also cut of beef sold as biftek and entrecôte, usually a tough cut, but better than flank steak.
Oreille de porc: cooked pig’s ear served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
Oreillette: thin, crisp rectangular dessert fritters, flavored with orange-flower water specialty of Provence.
Orge (perlé): barley (pearl barley).
Orientale, à l’: general name for vaguely Eastern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes, and sweet red peppers.
Osso bucco à la niçoise: sautéed veal braised with tomatoes, garlic, onions, and orange zest specialty of the Mediterranean.
Ostréiculteur: Oyster grower.
Oursin: sea urchin.
Oursinade: creamy sea urchin soup.
Pageot: a type of sea bream or porgy. The finest is pageot rouge, wonderful grilled. Pageot blanc is drier and needs to be marinated in oil before cooking.
Paillarde (de veau): thick slice (of veal) also, piece of meat pounded flat and sauteéed.
Pailles (pommes): fried potato sticks.
Paillette: cheese straw, usually made with puff pastry and Parmesan cheese.
Pain: bread. Also, loaf of any kind.
aux cinq céréales: five-grain bread.
aux noix (aux noisettes): bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with walnuts (hazelnuts).
aux raisins: bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with raisins.
azyme: unleavened bread, matzoh.
bis: brown bread.
brié: very dense, elongated loaf of unsalted white bread specialty of Normandy.
complet: bread made partially or entirely from whole-wheat flour, with bakers varying proportions according to their personal tastes.
cordon: seldom-found regional country loaf decorated with a strip of dough.
d’Aix: variously shaped sourdough loaves, sometimes like a sunflower, other times a chain-like loaf of four linked rounds.
de campagne: country loaf can vary from a white bread simply dusted with flour to give it a rustic look (and fetch a higher price) to a truly hearty loaf that may be a blend of white, whole wheat, and perhaps rye flour with bran added. Comes in every shape.
de fantaisie: generally any odd or imaginatively shaped bread. Even baguette de campagne falls into this category.
de Gênes: classic almond sponge cake.
de mie: rectangular white sandwich loaf that is nearly all mie (interior crumb) and very little crust. It is made for durability, its flavor and texture developed for use in sandwiches. Unlike most French breads, it contains milk, sugar, and butter, and may contain chemical preservatives.
d’épices: spice bread, a specialty of Dijon.
de seigle: bread made from 60 to 70 percent rye flour and 30 to 40 percent wheat flour.
de son: legally a dietetic bread that is quality controlled, containing 20 percent bran mixed with white flour.
paillé: country loaf from the Basque region.
sans sel: salt-free bread.
viennois: bread shaped like a baguette, with regular horizontal slashes, usually containing white flour, sugar, powdered milk, water, and yeast.
Paleron: shoulder of beef.
Palette: upper shoulder of pork.
Palestine: classically a garnish of Jerusalem artichokes.
Palmier: palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de: heart of palm.
Palombe: wood or wild pigeon, or dove.
Palourde: prized medium-size clam.
Pan bagna: large round bread roll, split, brushed with olive oil, and filled with a variable mixture including anchovies, onions, black olives, green peppers, tomatoes, and celery cafe specialty from Nice.
Panaché: mixed now liberally used menu term to denote any mixture.
Panade: panada, a thick mixture used to bind forcemeats and quenelles, usually flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread crumbs, rice, or potatoes. Also refers to soup of bread, milk, and sometimes cheese.
Panisse: a thick fried pancake of chickpea flour, served as accompaniment to meat specialty of Provence.
Pannequet: rolled crêpe, filled and/or covered with sweet or savory mixture.
Panoufle: Generally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef sometimes grilled.
Pantin: small pork pastry.
Papeton: eggplant, fried, puréed, and cooked in a ring mold specialty of Provence.
Papillon: “butterfly” small crinkle-shelled creuse oyster from the Atlantic coast.
Papillote, en: cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Paquet (en): (in) a package or parcel.
Parfait: a dessert mousse also, mousse-like mixture of chicken, duck, or goose liver.
Paris-Brest, gâteau: classic, large, crown-shaped choux pastry filled with praline butter cream and topped with chopped almonds.
Parisienne, à la: varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have been fried and tossed in a meat glaze.
Parmentier: dish with potatoes.
Passe Crassane: flavorful variety of winter pear.
Passe-Pierre: edible seaweed.
Pastis: anise-flavored alcohol that becomes cloudy when water is added (the most famous brands are Pernod and Ricard). Also, name for tourtière, the flaky prune pastry from the southwest.
Pastiza: see gâteau basque.
Pata Négra (jambon): Prized ham from Spain, literally “black feet.”
Pâte: pastry or dough.
brisée: pie pastry
d’amande: almond paste.
sablée: sweeter, richer, and more crumbly pie dough than pâte sucrée, sometimes leavened.
sucrée: sweet pie pastry.
Pâté: minced meat that is molded, spiced, baked, and served hot or cold.
Pâtes (fraîches): pasta (fresh).
Patte blanche: small crayfish no larger than 2 1/2 ounces (75 g).
Patte rouge: large crayfish.
Pauchouse, pochouse: stew of river fish that generally includes tanche (tench), perche (perch), brochet (pike), and anguille (eel) specialty of Burgundy
Paupiette: slice of meat or fish, filled, rolled, then wrapped served warm.
Pavé: “paving stone” usually a thick slice of boned beef or calf’s liver. Also, a kind of pastry.
Pavé d’Auge: thick, ochre colored square of cow’s-milk cheese that comes from the Auge area of Normandy.
Pavot (graine de): poppy (seed).
Paysan(ne) (à la): country style (garnish of carrots, turnips, onions, celery and bacon).
Pèbre d’ail: see Poivre d’âne.
Pêche: peach. Also, fishing.
Pêche Alexandra: cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and puréed strawberries.
Pêche Melba: poached peach with vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce.
Pêcheur: “fisherman” usually refers to fish preparations.
Pélandron: see haricot gris.
Pélardon: small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat’s milk cheese specialty of the Languedoc.
Pèlerine: another name for scallop or coquille Saint-Jacques.
Péptie (au chocolat): nugget (chocolate chip).
Pequillo: small red Spanish pepper, usually stuffed with salt cod purée.
Perce-pierre: samphire, edible seaweed.
Perdreau: young partridge.
Périgourdine, à la, or Périgueux: sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the Périgord in southwestern France.
Persil (simple): parsley (flatleaf).
Persillade: blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Persillé: “parsleyed” describes certain blue-veined cheeses. See also Jambon persillé.
Pet de nonne: “nun’s fart” small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Pétale: “petal” very thin slice.
Petit-beurre: popular tea cookie made with butter.
Petit déjeuner: breakfast.
Petit-four (sucré or salée): tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory) in elegant restaurants, served with cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward also called mignardise.
Petit-gris: small land snail.
Petit-pois: small green pea.
Petit salé: salt-cured portions of lean pork belly, often served with lentils.
Petite marmite: earthenware casserole the broth served from it.
Pétoncle: tiny scallop, similar to American bay scallop.
Pibale: tiny eel, also called civelle.
Picholine, pitchouline: a variety of green olive, generally used to prepare olives casseés specialty of Provence.
Picodon (méthode Dieulefit): small disc of goat’s-milk cheese, the best of which (qualified as méthode Dieulefit) is hard, piquant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and aged a month in earthenware jars specialty of northern Provence.
Pièce: portion, piece.
Piech: poached veal brisket stuffed with vegetables, herbs, and sometimes rice, ham, eggs, or cheese specialty of the Mediterranean.
Pied de cheval: “horse’s foot” giant Atlantic coast oyster.
Pied de mouton: meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. Also, sheep’s foot.
Pieds et paquets: “feet and packages” mutton tripe rolled and cooked with sheep’s feet, white wine, and tomatoes specialty of Provence and the Mediterranean.
Pierre-Qui-Vire: “stone that moves” a supple, tangy, flat disc of cow’s-milk cheese with a reddish rind, made by the Benedictine monks at the Abbaye de la Pierre-Qui Vire in Burgundy.
Pigeon (neau): pigeon or squab (young pigeon or squab).
Pignons: pine nuts, found in the cones of pine trees growing in Provence and along the southwestern Atlantic coast.
Pilau, pilaf: rice sautéed with onion and simmered in broth.
Pilchard: name for sardines on the Atlantic coast.
Piment: red pepper or pimento.
Piment (or poivre) de Jamaïque: allspice.
Piment d’Espelette: slender, mildly hot chile pepper from Espelette, a village in the Basque region.
Piment doux: sweet pepper.
Pimenté: hot, peppery, spicy.
Pimpernelle: salad burnet, a salad green with a somewhat bitter taste.
Pince: claw. Also, tongs used when eating snails or seafood.
Pineau des Charentes: sweet fortified wine from the Cognac region on the Atlantic coast, served as an aperitif.
Pintade(au): (young) guinea fowl.
Pipérade: a dish of pepper onions, tomatoes, and often ham and scrambled eggs specialty of the Basque region.
Piquant(e): sharp or spicy tasting.
Piqué: larded studded.
Piquenchagne, picanchagne: a pear tart with walnut or brioche crust specialty of the Bourbonnais, a province in Auvergne.
Pissaladière: a flat open-face tart like a pizza, garnished with onions, olives, and anchovies specialty of Nice.
Pissenlit: dandelion green.
Pistache: pistachio nut.
Pistil de safran: thread of saffron.
Pistou: sauce of basil, garlic, and olive oil specialty of Provence. Also a rich vegetable, bean, and pasta soup flavored with pistou sauce.
Pithiviers: a town in the Loire valley that gives its name to a classic large puff pastry found filled with almond cream. Also, lark pâté.
Plaice: a small, orange-spotted flounder or fluke, a flat ocean fish also known as plie franch or carrelet. Found in the English Channel.
Plat cuisiné: dish containing ingredients that have cooked together, usually in a sauce.
Plat du jour: today’s special.
Plat principal: main dish.
Plate: flat-shelled oyster.
Plateau de fruits de mer: seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish usually includes oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny shrimp.
Plates côtes: part of beef ribs usually used in pot-au feu.
Pleurote: very soft-fleshed, feather-edged wild mushrooms also now being cultivated commercially in several regions of France.
Plie: see Plaice.
Plombière: classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot jam.
Pluche: small sprig of herbs or plants, generally used for garnish.
Pochouse: see Pauchouse.
Pogne: brioche flavored with orange-flower water and filled with fruits specialty of Romans-sur-Isère, in the Rhône-Alpes.
Point(e) (d’asperge): tip (of asparagus).
Point (à): ripe or ready to eat, the perfect moment for eating a cheese or fruit. Also, cooked medium rare.
Poire William’s: variety of pear colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this variety of pear.
Pois (chiche): pea (chickpea).
d’eau douce: freshwater fish.
de lac: lake fish.
de mer: ocean fish.
de rivière: river fish.
de roche: rock fish.
fumé: smoked fish.
noble: refers to prized, thus expensive, variety of fish.
Poitrine: breast (of meat or poultry).
Poitrine demi-sel: unsmoked slab bacon.
Poitrine fumée: smoked slab bacon.
Poivrade: a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables and strained before serving.
d’ain: Provençal name for wild savory. Also, small goat cheese covered with sprigs of savory. Also known as pèbre d’ail and pèbre d’ase.
en grain: peppercorn.
frais de Madagascar: green peppercorn.
gris: black peppercorn.
moulu: ground pepper.
noir: black peppercorn.
rose: pink peppercorn.
vert: green peppercorn.
Poivron (doux): (sweet bell) pepper.
Pojarski: finely chopped meat or fish shaped like a cutlet and fried.
Polenta: cooked dish of cornmeal and water, usually with added butter and cheese also, cornmeal.
Pommade (beurre en): usually refers to a thick, smooth paste (creamed butter).
Pommes de terre: potatoes.
à l’anglaise: boiled.
allumettes: “match-sticks” fries cut into very thin julienne.
boulangère: potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. Also, a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin: grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine: mashed potatoes mixed with cboux pastry, shaped into small balls and fried.
dauphinoise: a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk and/or cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse: mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg, used for garnish.
en robe des champs, en robe de chambre: potatoes boiled or baked in their skin potatoes in their jackets.
frites: French fries.
gratinées: browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise: potatoes sautéed with onions.
macaire: classic side dish of puréed potatoes shaped into small balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline: potato purée enriched with butter, egg yolks, and whipped cream.
paillasson: fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles: potatoes cut into julienne strips, then fried.
Pont-Neuf: classic fries.
sarladaise: sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally) truffles.
soufflées: small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la cèndre: baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur: steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pommes en l’air: caramelized apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pompe à l’huile, pompe de Noël: see Gibassier.
Pompe aux grattons: bread containing cracklings.
Pont l’Evêque: village in Normandy that gives its name to a very tender, fragrant square of cow’s milk cheese.
Porc (carré de): pork (loin).
Porc (côte de): pork (chop).
Porcelet: young suckling pig.
Porchetta: young pig stuffed with offal, herbs, and garlic, and toasted seen in charcuteries in Nice.
Porto (au): (with) port.
Portugaise: elongated, crinkle-shell oyster.
Pot-au-feu: traditional dish of beef simmered with vegetables, often served in two or mote courses today chefs often use it to mean fish poached in fish stock with vegetables.
Pot bouilli: another name for pot-au-feu.
Pot-de-crème: individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Potée: traditional hearty meat soup, usually containing pork, cabbage, and potatoes.
Potimarron: see Citrouille.
Potiron: see Citrouille.
Potjevleisch: a mixed meat terrine, usually of veal, pork, and rabbit specialty of the North.
Poularde: fatted hen.
Poule au pot: boiled stuffed chicken with vegetables specialty of the city of Béarn in the southwest.
Poule d’Inde: turkey hen.
Poule faisane: female pheasant.
Poulet (rôti): chicken (roast).
Poulet basquaise: Basque-style chicken, with tomatoes and sweet peppers.
Poulet de Bresse: high-quality chicken raised on farms to exacting specifications, from the Rhône-Alpes.
Poulet de grain: corn-fed chicken.
Poulet fermier: free-range chicken.
Poulette: tiny chicken.s
Pouligny-Saint-Pierre: village in the Loire valley that gives its name to a goat’s-milk cheese shaped like a truncated pyramid with a mottled, grayish rind and a smooth-grained, ivory-white interior.
Pounti: (also spelled pounty) a pork meat loaf that generally includes Swiss chard or spinach, eggs, milk, herbs, onions, and prunes specialty of the Auvergne.
Pousse-en-claire: Oysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for four to eight months.
Pousse-pierre: edible seaweed also called sea beans.
Poussin: baby chicken.
Poutargue, boutargue: salted, pressed, and flattened mullet roe, generally spread on toast as an appetizer specialty of Provence and the Mediterranean.
Poutine: see Nonat.
Praire: small clam.
Pralin: ground caramelized almonds.
Praline: caramelized almonds.
Pré-salé (agneau de): delicately salted lamb raised on the salt marshes of Normandy and the Atlantic coast.
Presskoph: pork headcheese, often served with vinaigrette specialty of Alsace.
Primeur(r): refers to early fresh fruits and vegetables, also to new wine.
Printanière: garnish of a variety of spring vegetables cut into dice or balls.
Prix fixe: fixed-price menu.
Prix net: service included.
Profiterole(s): classic chou pastry dessert, usually puffs of pastry filled with vanilla ice cream and topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Provençale: in the style of Provence usually includes garlic, tomatoes, and/or olive oil.
Prune (d’ente): fresh plum (variety of plum grown in the famed Agen region of the southwest).
Puits d’amour: “wells of love” classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.
Quasi (de veau): standing rump (of veal).
Quatre épices: spice blend of ground ginger, nutmeg, white pepper, and cloves.
Quatre-quarts: “four quarters” pound cake made with equal weights of eggs, flour, butter, and sugar.
Quenelle: dumpling, usually of veal, fish, or poultry.
Quetsche: small purple Damson plum.
Queue (de boeuf): tail (of beefoxtail).
Quiche lorraine: savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.
Râble de lièvre (lapin): saddle of hare (rabbit).
Raclette: rustic dish, from Switzerland and the Savoie, of melted cheese served with boiled potatoes, tiny pickled cucumbers, and onions also, the cheese used in the dish.
Radis: small red radish.
Radis noir: large black radish, often served with cream, as a salad.
Rafraîchi: cool, chilled, or fresh.
Ragoût: stew usually of meat.
Raie (bouclée): skate or ray, found in the English Channel, Atlantic, and Mediterranean.
Raisin: grape raisin.
de Corinthe: currant.
de Smyrne: sultana.
Raïto: red wine sauce that generally includes onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, olives, and capers, usually served warm over grilled fish specialty of Provence.
Ramequin: small individual casserole. Also, a small tart. Also, a small goat’s-milk cheese from the Bugey, an area in the northern Rhône valley.
Ramier: wood or wild pigeon.
Râpé: grated or shredded.
Rascasse: gurnard, or scorpion fish in the rockfish family an essential ingredient of bouillabaisse, the fish stew of the Mediterranean.
Ratafia: liqueur made by infusing nut or fruit in brandy.
Ratatouille: a cooked dish of eggplant, zucchini, onions, tomatoes, peppers, garlic, and olive oil, served hot or cold specialty of Provence.
Ratte: small, bite-size potatoes, often used for purées.
Ravigote: classic thick vinaigrette sauce with vinegar, white wine, shallots, and herbs. Also, cold mayonnaise with capers, onions, and herbs.
Raviole de Royans: tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the Rhône-Alpes.
Ravioli à la niçoise: square or round pasta filled with meat and/or swiss chard and baked with grated cheese.
Reblochon: smooth, supple, creamy cow’s-milk cheese from the Savoie in the Alps.
Reine-Claude: greengage plum.
Reinette, reine de: fall and winter variety of apple, deep yellow with a red blush.
Religieuse, petite: “nun” a small version of a classic pastry consisting of two choux puffs filled with chocolate, coffee, or vanilla pastry cream, placed one on top of another, and frosted with chocolate or coffee icing to resemble a nun in her habit.
Rémoulade (céleri): sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins (dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
Rigotte: small cow’s-milk cheese from the Lyon region.
Rillettes (d’oie): minced spread of pork (goose) can also be made with duck, fish, or rabbit.
Rillons: usually pork belly, cut up and cooked until crisp, then drained of fat also made of duck, goose, or rabbit.
Ris d’agneau (de veau): lamb (veal) sweetbreads.
Rissolé: browned by frying, usually potatoes.
à la impératrice: cold rice pudding with candied fruit.
complet: brown rice.
de Camargue: nutty, fragrant rice grown in the Camargue, the swampy area just south of Arles in Provence.
sauvage: wild rice.
Rizotto, risotto: creamy rice made by stirring rice constantly in stock as it cooks, then mixing in other ingredients such as cheese or mushrooms.
Robe des champs, robe de chambre (pommes en): potatoes boiled or baked in their skin potatoes in their jackets.
Rocamadour: village in southwestern France which gives its name to a tiny disc of cheese, once made of pure goat’s or sheep’s milk, now generally either goat’s milk or a blend of goat’s and cow’s milk. Also called cabécou.
Rognonnade: veal loin with kidneys attached.
Rollot: spicy cow’s-milk cheese with a washed ochre-colored rind, in small cylinder or heart shape from the North.
Romanoff: fruit, often strawberries, macerated in liqueur and topped with whipped cream.
Rondelle: round slice–of lemon, for example.
Roquefort: disc of blue veined cheese of raw sheep’s milk from southwestern France, aged in village of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon.
Roquette: rocket or arugula, a spicy salad green.
Rosé: rare used for veal, duck, or liver. Also, rose-colored wine.
Rosette (de boeuf): large dried pork (beef) sausage, from area around Lyon.
Rôti: roast meat roast.
Rouelle: slice of meat or vegetable cut at an angle.
Rouennaise (canard à la): in the style of Rouen (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-thickened sauce).
Rouget barbet, rouget de roche: red mullet, a prized, expensive rock-fish, with sweet flesh and red skin its flavorful liver is reserved for sauces.
Rouget grondin: red gurnard, a large, common rockfish, less prized than rouget barbet. A variety of galinette. An ingredient in bouillabaisse.
Rougette: a small red-leafed butterhead lettuce, specialty of Provence.
Rouille: mayonnaise of olive oil, garlic, chile peppers, bread, and fish broth usually served with fish soups, such as bouillabaisse.
Roulade: meat or fish roll, or rolled-up vegetahle soufflé larger than a paupiette, and often stuffed.
Roussette: dogfish, also called salmonette because of its pinkish skin, found on the Atlantic coast. Good when very fresh.
Roux: sauce base or thickening of flour and butter.
Rove: breed of goat also small round of Provencal soft goat’s cheese, fragrant with wild herbs.
Royale, à la: “royal-style” rich classic preparation, usually with truffles and a cream sauce.
Rumsteck: rump steak.
Russe, salade à la: cold mixed salad of peas and diced carrots and turnips in mayonnaise.
Sabayon, zabaglione: frothy sweet sauce of egg yolks, sugar, wine, and flavoring that is whipped while being cooked in a water bath.
Sabodet: strong, earthy pork sausage of pig’s head and skin, served hot specialty of Lyon.
Saignant(e): cooked rare, for meat, usually beef.
Saindoux: lard or pork fat.
Saint-Germain: with peas.
Saint-Hubert: poivrade sauce with chestnuts and bacon added.
Saint Jacques, coquille: sea scallop.
Saint-Marcellin: small flat disc of cow’s-milk cheese (once made of goat’s milk) made in dairies in the Isère, outside Lyon. The best is well aged and runny. Found in Paris, the Lyons area, and northern Provence.
Saint-Nectaire: village in the Auvergne that gives its name to a supple, thick disc of cow’s-milk cheese with a mottled gray rind.
Saint-Pierre: John Dory, a prized mild, flat, white ocean fish. Known as soleil and Jean Doré in the North, and poule de mer along the Atlantic coast.
Saint-Vincent: moist, buttery, thick cylinder of cow’s-milk cheese from Burgundy with a rust-colored rind similar to Epoisses, but aged a bit longer, therefore stronger.
Sainte-Maure: village in the Loire valley that gives its name to a soft, elongated cylinder of goat’s-milk cheese with a distinctive straw in the middle and a mottled, natural blue rind.
Salade: salad also, a head of lettuce.
Salade folle: mixed salad, usually including green beans and foie gras.
Salade lyonnaise: green salad with cubed bacon and soft-cooked eggs, often served with herring and anchovies, and/or sheep’s feet and chicken livers specialty of Lyon also called saladier lyonnais.
Salade niçoise: salad with many variations, but usually with tomatoes, green beans, anchovies, tuna, potatoes, black olives, capers, and artichokes.
Salade panachée: mixed salad.
Salade russe: mixed diced vegetables in mayonnaise.
Salade verte: green salad.
Saladier (lyonnais): see Salade lyonnaise.
Salers: Cantal-type cheese, made in rustic cheese-making houses only when the cows are in the Auvergne’s mountain pastures, from May to September.
Salicorne: edible seaweed, sea string bean often pickled and served as a condiment.
Salmis: classic preparation of roasted game birds or poultry, with sauce made from the pressed carcass.
Salpicon: diced vegetables, meat, and/or fish in a sauce, used as a stuffing, garnish, or spread.
Salsifis: salsify, oyster plant.
Sandre: pickerel, perch-like river fish, found in the Saône and Rhine.
Sanglier: wild boar.
Sangue: Corsican black pudding usually with grapes or herbs.
Sanguine: “blood” orange, so named for its red juice.
Sansonnet: Starling or thrush.
Sar, sargue: blacktail, a tiny flat fish of the sea bream family best grilled or baked.
Sarcelle: teal, a species of wild duck.
Sardine: small sardine. Large sardines are called pilchards. Found year-round in the Mediterranean, from May to October in the Atlantic.
Sarladaise: as prepared in Sarlat in the Dordogne with truffles.
Sarriette: summer savory. See poivre d’ain.
Saucisse: small fresh sausage.
Saucisse chaude: warm sausage.
Saucisse de Francfort: hot dog.
Saucisse de Strasbourg: redskinned hot dog.
Saucisse de Toulouse: mild country-style pork sausage.
Saucisson: most often, a large air-dried sausage, such as salami, eaten sliced as a cold cut when fresh, usually called saucisson chaud, or hot sausage.
Saucisson à l’ail: garlic sausage, usually to be cooked and served warm.
Saucisson d’Arles: dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning a specialty of Arles, in Provence.
Saucisson de campagne: any country-style sausage.
Saucisson de Lyon: air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with chunks of pork fat.
Saucisson de Morteau: see Jésus de Morteau.
Saucisson en croûte: sausage cooked in a pastry crust.
Saucisson sec: any dried sausage, or salami.
Saumon (sauvage): salmon (“wild,” to differentiate from commercially raised salmon).
Saumon d’Ecosse: Scottish salmon.
Saumon de fontaine: small, commercially raised salmon.
Saumon fumé: smoked salmon.
Saumon norvégien: Norwegian salmon.
Saumonette: see Roussette.
Saupiquet: classic aromatic wine sauce thickened with bread.
Sauté: browned in fat.
Savarin: yeast-leavened cake shaped like a ring, soaked in sweet syrup.
Savoie (biscuit de): sponge cake.
Savoyarde: in the style of Savoy, usually flavored with Gruyère cheese.
Schieffele, schieffala, schifela: smoked pork shoulder, served hot and garnished with pickled turnips or a potato and onion salad.
Sec (sèche): dry or dried.
Seiche: cuttlefish. Seigle (pain de): rye (bread).
Sel gris: salt, unbleached sea salt.
Sel marin: sea salt.
Sel (gros): coarse salt.
Selle: saddle (of meat).
Selles-sur-Cher: village in the Loire valley identified with a small, flat, truncated cylinder of goat’s-milk cheese with a mottled blueish-gray rind (sometimes patted with powdered charcoal) and a pure-white interior.
Selon grosseur (S.G.): according to size, usually said of lobster or other seafood.
Selon le marché: according to what is in season or available.
Selon poid (S.P.): according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat. Also used in France as a savory garnish, particularly in North African dishes such as couscous.
Serpolet: wild thyme.
Service: meal, mealtime, the serving of the meal. A restaurant has two services if it serves lunch and dinner a dish en deux services, like canard pressé. is served in two courses.
Service (non) compris: service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably included on the bill).
Service en sus: service charge to be made in addition to menu prices. Same as service non compris.
Simple: simple, plain, unmixed. Also, a single scoop of ice cream.
Smitane: sauce of cream, onions, white wine, and lemon juice.
Socca: a very thin, round crêpe made with chickpea flour, sold on the streets of Nice and eaten as a snack.
Soissons: dried or fresh white beans, from the area around Soissons, northeast of Paris.
Soja (pousse de): soy bean (soy bean sprout).
Soja, sauce de: soy sauce.
Solette: small sole.
Sommelier: wine waiter.
Soubise: onion sauce.
Soufflé: light, mixture of puréed ingredients, egg yolks, and whipped egg whites, which puffs up when baked sweet or savory, hot or cold.
Soumaintrain: a spicy, supple flat disc of cow’s-milk cheese with a red-brown rind from Burgundy.
Soupir de nonne: “nun’s sighs” fried choux pastry dusted with confectioners’ sugar. Created by a nun in an Alsatian abbey. Also called pet de nonne.
Souris: “mouse” muscle that holds the leg of lamb to the bone lamb shanks.
Spätzel, spaetzle, spetzli: noodle-like Alsatian egg and flour dumpling, served poached or fried.
Spoom: wine or fruit juice mixed with egg whites, whipped, and frozen to create a frothy iced dessert.
Steak-frites: classic French dish of grilled steak served with French-fried potatoes.
Stockfish, stocaficada, estoficada, estoficado, morue plate: flattened, dried cod found in southern France. Also, a purée-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs specialty of Nice. Sometimes served with pistou.
Strasbourgeoise, à la: ingredients typical of Strasbourg including sauerkraut, foie gras, and salt pork.
Succès à la praline: cake made with praline meringue layers, frosted with meringue and butter cream.
Supion, supioun, suppion: cuttlefish.
Suprême: a veal- or chicken-based white sauce thickened with flour and cream. Also, a boneless breast of poultry or a filet of fish.
Table d’hôte: open table or board. Often found in the countryside, these are private homes that serve fixed meals and often have one or two guest rooms as well.
Tablette (de chocolat): bar (of chocolate).
Tablier de sapeur: “fireman’s apron” tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled specialty of Lyon.
Tacaud: pour or whiting-pour, a small, inexpensive fish found in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, usually fried.
Tagine: spicy North African stew of veal, lamb, chicken, or pigeon, and vegetables.
Talmouse: savory pastry triangle of cheese-flavored choux dough baked in puff pastry.
Tamié: Flat disc of cheese, made of cow’s milk at the Trappist monastery in the Savoie village of Tamié. Similar to Reblochon.
Tanche: tench, a river fish with a mild, delicate flavor often an ingredient in matelote and pauchouse, freshwater fish stews.
Tapenade: a blend of black olives, anchovies, capers, olive oil, and lemon juice, sometimes with rum or canned tuna added specialty of Provence.
Tarama: carp roe, often made into a spread of the same name.
Tarbas: variety of large white bean, usually dried.
Tartare (de poisson): traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg, capers, chopped onion, and parsley (today, a popular highly seasoned raw fish dish).
Tarte: tart open-face pie or flan, usually sweet.
Tarte encalat: name for cheesecake in the Auvergne.
Tarte flambée: thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pizza, covered with cream, onions, and bacon specialty of Alsace also called Flamekueche.
Tarte Tatin: caramelized upside-down apple pie, made famous by the Tatin sisters in their hotel in Lamotte-Beuvron, in the Sologne a popular dessert, seen on menus all over France.
Tartine: open-face sandwich buttered bread.
Tasse: cup a coffee or tea cup.
Telline: a tiny violet-streaked clam, the size of a fingernail, seen in Provence and the Camargue generally seared with a bit of oil in a hot pan to open the shells and seasoned with parsley and garlic.
Tendron: cartilaginous meat cut from beef or veal ribs.
Teurgoule: a sweet rice pudding with cinnamon specialty of Normandy.
Terrine: earthenware container used for cooking meat, game, fish, or vegetable mixtures also the pâté cooked and served in such a container. It differs from a pâté proper in that the terrine is actually sliced out of the container, while a pâté has been removed from its mold.
Tête de veau (porc): head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
Tétragone: spinach-like green, found in Provence.
Thermidor (homard): classic lobster dish lobster split lengthwise, grilled, and served in the shell with a cream sauce.
Thon (blanc) (germon): tuna (white albacore).
Thon rouge: bluefin tuna.
Tian: an earthenware gratin dish also vegetable gratins baked in such a dish from Provence.
Tilleul: linden tree linden-blossom herb tea.
Timbale: small round mold with straight or sloping slides also, a mixture prepared in such a mold.
Tomates à la provençale: baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
Tomme: generic name for cheese, usually refers to a variety of cheeses in the Savoie also, the fresh cheese used to make Cantal in the Auvergne.
Tomme arlésienne: rectangular cheese made with a blend of goat’s and cow’s milk and sprinkled with summer savory also called tomme de Camargue a specialty of the Languedoc and Arles, in Provence.
Tomme fraiche: pressed cake of fresh milk curds, used in the regional dishes of the Auvergne.
Topinambour: Jerusalem artichoke.
Torréfiée: roasted, as in coffee beans and chocolate.
Toro (taureau): bull meat found in butcher shops in the Languedoc and Pays Basque, and sometimes on restaurant menus.
Torteau au fromage: goat cheese cheesecake from the Poitou-Charentes along the Atlantic coast a blackened, spherical loaf found at cheese shops throughout France once a homemade delicacy, today prepared industrially.
Toucy: village in Burgundy that gives its name to a local fresh goat cheese.
Tourain, tourin, tourrin: generally a peasant soup of garlic, onions (and sometimes tomatoes), and broth or water, thickened with egg yolks and seasoned with vinegar specialty of the southwest.
Tournedos: center portion of beef filet, usually grilled or sautéed.
Tournedos Rossini: sautéed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
Touron: marzipan loaf, or a cake of almond paste, often layered and flavored with nuts or candied fruits and sold by the slice specialty of the Basque region.
Tourte (aux blettes): pie (common Niçoise dessert pie filled with Swiss chard, eggs, cheese, raisins, and pine nuts). Also, name for giant rounds of country bread found in the Auvergne and the southwest.
Tourteau: large crab.
Tourtière: shallow three-legged cooking vessel, set over hot coals for baking. Also, southwestern pastry dish filled with apples and/or prunes and sprinkled with Armagnac.
Train de côtes: rib of beef.
Traiteur: caterer delicatessen.
Trappiste: name given to the mild, lactic cow’s-milk cheese made in a Trappist monastery in Echourgnac, in the southwest.
Travers de porc: spareribs.
Trévise: radicchio, a bitter red salad green of the chicory family.
Tripes à la mode de Caen: beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and Calvados (apple brandy) specialty of Normandy.
Triple crème: legal name for cheese containing more than 75 percent butterfat, such as Brillat-Savarin.
Tripoux: mutton tripe.
Tripoxa: Basque name for sheep’s or calf’s blood sausage served with spicy red Espelette peppers.
Trompettes de la mort: dark brown wild mushroom, also known as “horn of plenty.”
Tronçon: cut of meat or fish resulting in a piece that is longer than it is wide generally refers to slices from the largest part of a fish.
Trouchia: flat omelet filled with spinach or Swiss chard specialty of Provence.
Truffade: a large layered and fried potato pancake made with bacon and fresh Cantal cheese specialty of the Auvergne.
Truffe (truffé): truffle (with truffles).
Truffes sous la cendre: truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in ashes.
Truite (au bleu): trout (a preferred method of cooking trout, not live, as often assumed, but rather in a “live condition.” The trout is gutted just moments prior to cooking, but neither washed nor scaled. It is then plunged into a hot mixture of vinegar and water, and the slimy lubricant that protects the skin of the fish appears to turn the trout a bluish color. The fish is then removed to a broth to finish its cooking.)
de lac: lake trout.
de mer: sea trout or brown trout.
de rivière: river trout.
saumoneé: salmon trout.
Ttoro: fish soup from the Basque region. Historically, the liquid that remained after poaching cod was seasoned with herbs and used to cook vegetables and potatoes. Today, a more elaborate version includes the addition of lotte, mullet, mussels, conger eel, langoustines, and wine.
Tuile: literally, “curved roofing tile” delicate almond-flavored cookie.
Tulipe: tulip-shaped cookie for serving ice cream or sorbet.
Turban: usually a mixture or combination of ingredients cooked in a ring mold.
Turbot(in): turbot (small turbot), Prized flatfish found in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.
Vacherin: dessert of baked meringue, with ice cream and whipped cream. Also a strong, supple winter cheese encircled by a band of spruce, from the Jura.
Vallée d’Auge: area of Normandy. Also, garnish of cooked apples and cream or Calvados and cream.
Vapeur, à la: steamed.
Velouté: classic sauce based on veal, chicken, or fish stock, thickened with a roux of butter and flour also, variously seasoned classic soups thickened with cream and egg yolks.
Ventre: belly or stomach.
Ventrèche: pork belly.
Verdure (en): garnish of green vegetables. Verdurette: herb vinaigrette.
Vernis: large fleshy clam with small red tongue and shiny varnish-like shell.
Verjus: the juice of unripe grapes, used to make a condiments used much like vinegar in sauces.
Véronique, à la: garnish of peeled white grapes. Vert-pré: a watercress garnish, sometimes including potatoes.
Verveine: lemon verbena, herb tea.
Vessie, en: cooked in a pig’s bladder (usually chicken).
Vichy: with glazed carrots. Also, a brand of mineral water.
Vichyssoise: cold, creamy leek and potato soup.
Viennoise: coated in egg, breaded, and fried.
Vierge (sauce): “virgin” term for the best quality olive oil, from the first pressing of the olives (sauce of olive oil, lemon juice, garlic, tomatoes, and fresh herbs.)
Vieux (vielle): old.
Vieux Lille: thick, square cheese named for the old part of the north’s largest city, made in the same way as Maroilles, with cow’s milk, only salted more, then aged six months until stinking ripe. Also called vieux puant, or “old stinker.”
Vin jaune: an amber yellow wine made in the Jura with late harvested grapes. Stored in oak casks, it can last up to a century.
Vinaigre (vieux): vinegar (aged).
Vinaigre de xérès: sherry vinegar.
Vinaigrette: oil and vinegar dressing.
Viognier: increasingly popular white grape of the Rhône, used for the famed Condrieu .
Violet or figue de mer: unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish interior. A delicacy along the Mediterranean, particularly in Marseille.
Violet de Provence: braid of plump garlic, a specialty of Provence and the Côte-d’Azur.
Violette: violet its crystallized petals are a specialty of Toulouse.
Viroflay: classic garnish of spinach for poached or soft-cooked eggs.
Vive or vipère de mer: weever a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as bouillabaisse, or grilled. The venomous spine is removed before cooking.
Vol-au-vent: puff pastry shell.
Volonté (à): at the customer’s discretion.
Vonnaissienne, à la: in the style of Vonnas, a village in the Rhône-Alpes. Also, crêpes made with potatoes.
Waterzooi: Flemish chicken stew cooked with aromatic herbs and vegetables in a sauce of cream and chicken broth.
Xérès (vinaigre de): sherry (vinegar).
Za’tar: Middle Eastern seasoning mix of ground sesame seeds, sumac berrries, thyme and salt.
Zeste: zest, or citrus peel with white pith removed.
Zewelmai, zewelwai: Alsatian onion tart.
Zingara, à la: gypsy style with tomato sauce. Also classically, a garnish of ham, tongue, mushrooms, and truffles.